Different ways to write the alphabet letters

10 Super Easy Hand Lettering Techniques with an Artful Spin


The end results of hand lettering are fun, beautiful, often mesmerizing, and leaving many of us thinking, “I could never do that.” But you can! We have it on good authority that hand lettering doesn’t have to be difficult. In fact, you can create easy to intricate letters from A-Z. Joanne Sharpe shares 10 hand lettering techniques, from simple to complex, that are all simple to follow and fun to do, excerpted from her book Artful Alphabets.

And remember rule #1 for hand lettering: enjoy the process and embrace “imperfections” as you go! If you purchase your copy of Artful Alphabets now, you will also get a bonus hand lettering lesson free!

10 Hand Lettering Techniques from Easy to Intricate

Hand lettering art can absolutely be a stress-free process, as you explore the components of letters and how they become art images. These hand lettering techniques are somewhat easier than traditional calligraphy or type design because your personal handwriting will be used as the style foundation for each new alphabet and won’t require involve years of practice for immediate success.

As we get started, keep in mind it’s OK to copy at first to get comfortable and confident with the creative lettering process. Be inspired by each sample alphabet and imitate the details. But don’t ever be afraid to put a little spin on the ideas to make the hand lettering reflect your own personal style and your creative voice.

Artful Calligraphy

If you’ve never had formal lessons in calligraphy, try using a specific calligraphy marker to make a stylized alphabet with your own handwriting. You can achieve a lettering look unique to you using the features of a chisel-tip marker and being comfortable with your hand movement and letter formation.

Materials list:

  • Black Elegant Writer Calligraphy Pen, medium point
  • Bristol paper
  • Ruler
  • Waterbrush

1. Create guidelines that are 1-inch (25mm) tall. Inside the lines, hold the Elegant Writer medium-sized calligraphy pen at a 45-degree angle and write the upper and lowercase alphabet.

2. On the next row, write the letters with the same pen but on a slant for a slightly more stylized look.

3. On the next row, write the letters at a back and forth slant with a flourish at the end, making the 45-degree angle of the pen do the work for you. You can also explore a new look by wetting the edges of the letters with a waterbrush to let the ink pool out.

Great Gray Shadows

Create some dimension and drama using a basic chisel-tip-marker font with gray shadows along each letter. This bold hand lettering technique is super simple yet always impressive.

Materials list:

  • Black and gray Copic permanent markers
  • Bristol paper

1. Write the alphabet using the broad chisel tip of a black permanent marker to create the uppercase bold alphabet.

2. Use the pointed tip of the chisel to draw the lowercase alphabet.

3. Using the brush end of a gray permanent marker, add the shadow along the left edge of each letter so the light seems to come from the right.

Matisse Inspired

Study famous artists and their signature styles, techniques and characteristics to create new letters. This sampler imitates the typical colors, bulbous shapes and moving line forms in the art of Henri Matisse. What other artists could inspire letterforms?

Materials list:

  • Bristol paper
  • Pencil
  • Prismacolor markers

1. Study the style of your favorite artist and sketch the alphabet on the paper using a pencil. This hand lettering example uses the whimsical colors and letter shapes inspired by Henri Matisse. Identify characteristics of Matisse’s style such as the color palette, brushstrokes and line formation that could be used as letters. Use the stylized shapes on each alphabet letter.

2. Color the hand-drawn letters, creating rounded edges, drips and split tips to make a complete alphabet.

Watercolor Puddlers

Let puddles of watercolor create colorful, light and airy letters.

Materials list:

  • No. 4 and 6 round brushes
  • Waterbrush
  • Watercolor paints, liquid and pan
  • Watercolor paint

1. Lightly pencil the outline of a hollow alphabet if you need to. Using a paintbrush, write the letter of the alphabet with clean water, creating a water path. It will take a few tries to gauge just the right amount of water. You don’t want too much or too little, so experiment and practice first.

2. To paint the letters, drop in watercolor paints and let the colors pool, allowing them to migrate and swirl to fill the letterform. This works especially well with liquid watercolor. Watch the color spread throughout the letter, giving it a somewhat marbled look. Tilt the paper as needed to allow the color to spread through the water. Let the letters dry overnight and then erase the pencil lines.

Seurat’s Dots and Dashes

The style of artist of Georges Seurat is a playful inspiration for an artful alphabet font. Using dots and dashes of color in the impressionistic pointillism style creates an optical treat as the energetic filler for hand-drawn letters.

Materials list:

  • Bristol paper
  • Eraser
  • Pencil
  • Prismacolor markers

1. Draw chunky block letters with a pencil. I made some of my letters overlap one another.

2. Using the tip of the end of a marker, add dots to the letterforms. Applying different amounts of pressure will create different-sized dots. Within each letter, use a dark, medium and light shade of the same color to create variation.

3. Erase the pencil lines so the dots and dashes create the letterforms.

4. In other letters, use the bullet tip to fill the letters with dashes going in a variety of directions. Combine dots and dashes within a letter for even more variation.

Floating Feathers

There is so much imagery that can be used as inspiration for letter making. Here I choose feathers and an extra-fine pen to draw letterforms that create a whole alphabet.

Materials list:

  • Black uni-ball Vision pen
  • Bristol paper or cardstock
  • Eraser
  • Pencil

1. Sketch the alphabet in upper and lowercase using a pencil. Elongate or change the letter shape slightly to make a more interesting letter. Using a black permanent pen, turn the stem of each letter into the center of a feather with wavy feather lines coming out from it.

2. Add dots around the letters to give them an airy, floating appearance. Erase any visible pencil lines.

Watercolor Ombré

Draw big, bold letters and add watercolor paint in the colors to create a blended, ombré effect.

Materials list

  • Eraser
  • No. 4 or 6 round paintbrush
  • Pencil
  • Water container
  • Watercolor paint
  • Watercolor paper

1. Draw the alphabet in chunky, stylized block letters using a pencil. Fill the shape with clean water (mine is slightly blue here so it photographs clearly).

2. Load a brush with watercolor paint and apply it to the top of the letter.

3. Rinse your brush and gently guide some of the paint from the top of the letter down into the water puddle to create an ombré effect. Work from dark at the top to light at the bottom. Let your alphabet dry completely and then erase the pencil outlines.

Decorative Creative Cursive

Embellish simple, personal handwriting with bold and expressive lines, decorative details and movement in a stylized script or cursive.

Materials list:

  • Black Faber-Castell PITT Artist Pen
  • Bristol paper or cardstock
  • Eraser
  • Pencil

1. Write the alphabet using a combination of print and cursive letterstrokes. Allow the letters to be fun and whimsical. They don’t have to match.

2. Using black permanent pen, thicken the letters by reshaping and adding weight to random areas.

Bonus tip for better letters: Embellish each letter by drawing leaves or flowers that “grow” off the letterforms or decorate the interior of a letter. Expand the size of the letters by creating spaces to fill with pattern or color. Add a light color shadow and tiny dots around the letters to add interest.

Font in Floral

Embellish simple letterforms with elaborate, colorful and hand-drawn floral and leaf patterns.

Materials list:

  • Black ZIG Writer pen
  • Eraser
  • Markers, watercolor paint or colored pencils
  • Pencil
  • Watercolor paper

1. Use a pencil to create rounded block letters. Fill the letters with assorted flower shapes and designs using a black waterproof pen. Go all the way to the edges of the letters with the designs.

2. Erase the letterforms leaving just the linked flower design. Add color to the letters using markers, watercolor or colored pencil.

Storybooks and Scenery

Create an optical illusion or trompe l’oeil scenes inside chubby alphabet letters. Draw landscape imagery, such as a garden or beach, so the art reads across the letters.

Materials list:

  • Black Platinum Carbon pen
  • Colored pencil
  • Eraser
  • Pencil
  • Prismacolor markers
  • Watercolor paints and brushes
  • Watercolor paper
  • Water-soluble markers

1. Sketch the alphabet with a pencil. Outline the letters to create large, soft block letters.

2. Inside the letters, draw scenes or words that illustrate a particular word. In the sample, I illustrated a beach scene insight the word “bliss.” Use ink to go over the scene. Do not ink the outline of the letters.

3. Color the scene with colored pencils, permanent markers, water-soluble markers or watercolor paint. Erase the remaining pencil lines so the letters are created by the sketches inside.

Having a “Look”

If you think all my letters look similar, you are correct. A personal lettering style should reflect and identify the individual creator. All the sample alphabets illustrated here use my personal print or script handwriting as the foundation. Handwriting is unique to each of us, and it’s my hope that as you are inspired by each one of my hand lettering techniques, your personality and style will shine through.

While you work on your artful alphabets and styles, allow your own handwriting to evolve and influence what you create so when someone looks at your lettering, they recognize you in the lettered messages.

You can use your artful hand lettering in many ways, including but not limited to:

  • Art journaling
  • Card-making
  • Planners and bullet journals
  • Scrapbooking
  • Decorative invitations and announcements
  • Envelopes
  • Canvas wall art and paintings
  • Room décor
  • Party and celebration décor
  • Handmade gifts and wrapping paper
  • Cake decorating
  • Signs and banners

Your Next Steps

Did you enjoy these hand lettering techniques? Tell us which one is your favorite in the comments. And, be sure to check out Joanne Sharp’s Artful Alphabets. This easy-to-follow and exciting resource includes 55 inspiring hand lettering techniques and ideas. Why not try them all?

For a limited time when you buy Artful Alphabet you will receive a FREE Lettering Lesson! Get yours now!

English Alphabet | Writing | EnglishClub

An alphabet is a set of letters or symbols that we use to represent the basic speech sounds of a language in writing.

This page looks at writing the English alphabet. You can read about pronouncing the English alphabet here.

The English word "alphabet" comes from the Latin word "alphabetum". The Latin word "alphabetum" came from the first two letters of the Greek alphabet, "alpha" and "beta".

Letters of the English Alphabet

The English alphabet has 26 letters, starting with a and ending with z. Below you see the whole alphabet.

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

The letters above are "small letters". But they can also be written as "large letters" - see below.The letters of the alphabet are also sometimes called "characters".

Small and Large Letters

We can write each letter of the English alphabet as a "small letter" (abc) or as a "large letter" (ABC). Large letters are also called "capital letters" or "capitals".

Below you see the whole alphabet with small letters on the left and capitals on the right:

a A b B c C d D e E f F g G h H i I j J k K l L m M n N o O p P q Q r R s S t T u U v V w W x X y Y z Z

In informal English, we sometimes call capitals just "caps".

Small letters are sometimes called "lower case" and large letters "upper case". This is because in the old days of printing, before computers, the metal blocks for setting type were kept in two different boxes or "cases": small letters in the bottom or lower case, large letters in the top or upper case.

Font Styles

Printed letters of the alphabet come in different styles or designs. Each style is called a "font". This page shows all 26 characters, as small and large letters, in 5 different styles. Each column displays a different font style, in this order:

  1. Serif: with serifs, or little projections, at the end of most strokes
  2. Fixed-width: like old typewriter lettering - each letter is about the same width, so "i" takes up the same space as "w"
  3. Sans-serif: with no serifs
  4. Cursive: like handwriting
  5. Fantasy: fancy, artistic

Alphabetical Order

The English alphabet starts with the letter a and finishes with the letter z. We always write the alphabet in the same order:



This order is called "alphabetical order". We often write lists in alphabetical order. For example, to write a list of countries in alphabetical order, we start with countries that begin with the letter A, then with countries that begin with B, and so on. For example:

  • Australia
  • Brazil
  • Canada

If more than one word begins with the letter A, we put them in order based on the second letter, and then the third letter, and so on:

  • Algeria
  • Argentina
  • Belgium
  • Benin
  • Bermuda

We use alphabetical order for many things, for example:

  • dictionaries
  • indexes of books
  • telephone directories

When you write any list, it is a good idea to use alphabetical order. This makes it easy for your reader to find a particular item in the list.

Writing letters. Graphology of the XXI century

Writing letters. Graphology of the 21st century


Graphology of the XXI century
Schegolev Ilya Vladimirovich


Writing letters

The program window contains two tabs: "Writing letters" and "Graphological analysis".

By clicking on the "Writing of letters" tab, you enter the section for determining the strengths and weaknesses of the qualitative character traits by the form of writing letters (Fig. 19nine).

Fig. 199

On the left are all the letters of the alphabet (uppercase and lowercase), with the exception of those that are not fundamental for determining the character of a person (Yo, I, b, Y, b). By clicking on any letter, you will see in the box on the right the various spellings. Select the picture with the letter closest to your spelling and click on the arrow in the lower right corner of the picture. The automatically selected letter will be transferred to the handwriting panel, where each letter, uppercase and lowercase, has its own position. You can cancel the selection by clicking on the cross in the upper right corner of the picture of the selected letter in the user's handwriting panel. nine0003

You cannot select multiple letters from the same list (for example, two lowercase "a", two uppercase "b", etc.): the last choice will automatically replace the previous one. You don't have to select all the letters: ten samples are enough to analyze the handwriting. But the more letters you choose, the more accurate the result will be. After making the final selection, click the "Result" button. A window with analysis results will appear (Fig. 200).

It is divided into four parts: the upper two are devoted to the analysis of writing letters, and the lower two are devoted to graphological analysis, which is performed on the corresponding tab. The results are divided into two parts: describing the strengths of the character and telling about the weaknesses. nine0003

If you have selected less than ten letters, you will see "Insufficient data" in the result window. Therefore, carefully monitor the number of selected samples. In this case, such inscriptions are present in the lower part of the window, since we have not yet dealt with graphological analysis.

If you want to completely cancel the previous selection of all letters, click the "Deselect All" button in the form of a red X, located next to the "Result" button.

Fig. 200

This text is an introduction.

5.1. Instead of Russian letters, some programs show squiggles.

5.1. Instead of Russian letters, some programs show squiggles. Run the Control Panel applet -> Regional and Language Options. The Regional Options tab has two sections, Standards and formats and Location. The first section sets up the locale for a specific user and is responsible for how and

The history of the Internet in the dry language of soulless letters

The history of the Internet in the dry language of soulless letters I don’t know if this is bad or not, but the fact remains: if the engine of trade is advertising, then the engine of technical progress is the arms race, and the advent of the Internet is a vivid example of this. After 1957 in

Strange characters are displayed instead of letters

Instead of letters, incomprehensible signs are displayed If strange characters are displayed instead of letters on the screen, then the reason for this may be as follows. • Most likely, the required font is not installed on the system. Purchase the font CD and install them in folder

Moving letters

Moving letters Source file: Textfly.fla Many Flash movies will have text moving around the screen. There are many ways to create this effect, some of which are illustrated with examples available on the book's support Web site. Project GoalIn this section

Letter slope

The slope of the letters At school we were taught to write askew; this is considered to be the most convenient way to write. The letters are tilted to the right, that is, in the direction of movement of the writer. However, some people, for various reasons, did not obey the general rule. Obviously they are

Letter shape

Letter shape There are letters (for example, "p", "sh", "u", "h", "t", "i") that can be written roundly or angularly. The ascending and descending strokes of these letters are sometimes connected by semicircular lines, such handwriting is called round. In other people, the strokes intersect with each other

Letter height and width

Height and width of letters Each writer instinctively chooses the size of the letters that suits him. You can find many options for letter sizes, but graphologists conditionally divide them into three groups.1. Small letters (width and height less than 3-4 mm) indicate the ability to

Joining letters in words

nine0002 Connecting letters in words Does a person tend to make quick decisions, relying on his intuition, or does he consistently and leisurely analyze the situation? This can be seen from the way he connects letters in words. If in most words there are gaps between letters, then at

Capital letters shape

Capital letters form There is as much variation in the spelling of capital letters as there is in the spelling of capital letters. They can be big or small, simple or elaborate. In terms of writing style, capital letters often differ markedly from lowercase letters and therefore

Secrets of writing lowercase letters

Secrets of writing lowercase letters The character of a person is revealed not only in the general style of handwriting (in the direction of lines, pressure, inclination, distances between words and lines), but also in the features of writing individual letters. At the beginning of the 20th century, practicing graphologists noticed

5. Letter combinations

nine0002 5. Compounds of letters Signs from left to right (Fig. 185): • connections of letters are garland-shaped; • connections of letters are arched, arcade-shaped; • connections of letters are filiform; • connections of letters are angular. Rice.


Letter size

10. Letter size Signs from left to right (Fig. 190): • the size of the letters is large; • the size of the letters is small; • the size of the letters is very large; • the size of the letters is very small; Rice. nineteen0• letter size

Phonetics and phonology of the Russian language

12.1 Graphics

To convey speech in writing, we use letters, each of which has a specific meaning. The correlation of the signs used in writing with the sound side of the language and their meaning is dealt with by schedule . The set of letters arranged in the prescribed order is called alphabetically or alphabetically (Kasatkin 2014, 246).

In the modern Russian alphabet there are 33 letters , each letter is presented in two versions - printed and handwritten. Each letter can have two options - uppercase letter (large, capital) and lowercase (small). Each letter has its own graphic designation and name.

9la ch'iesy].

Letters ъ and ь in the scientific literature are called ep [jer] and er [jere '] , so are the signs of phonetic transcription. In school textbooks, these letters are called soft sign (b) , which corresponds to one of the functions of this letter - to indicate the softness of the previous consonant, and hard sign (b) - this name arose when at the end of a word after a hard consonant they wrote ъ ( house , desk , world ).

In the modern Russian alphabet 10 letters to designate vowels : A , E , Yo , and , On , , s , E , U , i ; 21 letters for consonants0007, L , m , H , P , R , from , T , F , x , C , h , Sh , ; 2 letters that do not represent any phonemes

In addition to letters, non-alphabetic means are also used in graphics : accent mark, hyphen (dash), punctuation marks, spaces between words, font emphasis, etc.

Below you can watch a video about how foreigners parse the letters of the Russian alphabet:

29. Foreigners understand the Russian alphabet URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L52o13Ac27E

Here you can watch cartoons about the letters of the Russian alphabet: channel Ancestors - ABC - Learn letters ( https://www.youtube.com/playlist ?list=PL0_RGnKPsAjZAJtK5T8FABgJ4G-tLwmsU ).

30. Letter A URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aylA-ewMzGM 31. Letter W URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C6Cx95waisA

12.2 Spelling

Russian spelling is a system of rules for writing words . It consists of five main sections:

  • transmission by letters of the phonemic composition of words;
  • fused, separate and hyphenated (semi-fused) spellings of words and their parts;
  • use of capital and small letters;
  • transfer of part of a word from one line to another;
  • graphic abbreviations of words (Kasatkin 2014, 254). nine0421

Each section of spelling is characterized by its own principles - general grounds for the correct spelling of words in the event that there is a choice provided by graphics. The place in the word where a choice of several spellings is possible is called spelling (Modern Russian Language 2016, 87).

For more information about Russian spelling, see video:

32. Russian language: spelling, spelling norms, principles of Russian spelling URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NVwxHoIKmrU

Spelling errors occur when a spelling is replaced by a prohibited way of conveying the same pronunciation, for example. writing a portfolio instead of a briefcase, a dog instead of a dog is considered a spelling mistake.

Spelling errors should be distinguished from clerical and linguistic errors.

Misspellings (eg portfolio ) are the result of inattention, and the writer himself can detect and correct them.

Language errors are related to incorrect pronunciation of the word, e.g. spelling portfolio testifies to the colloquial pronunciation of this word, when under stress instead of [eʹ] is pronounced [iʹ] (Kasatkin 2014, 255).

There may also be graphic errors related to the style of letters, for example. R instead of Y, N instead of I, replacement of letters of the Russian alphabet with Latin letters - n instead of p. Examples: R I live in Brno ; We study at the university .

Spellings of the Russian language are presented in spelling dictionaries, here we provide a link to online spelling dictionary of the Russian language : http://orfo.ruslang.ru/.

Rice. 39. Spelling poster "TSYA and TSYA in verbs. URL: https://slovo.mosmetod.ru/category/moskva-govorit/. Rice. 40. Spelling poster "Names of holidays". URL: https://slovo.mosmetod.ru/category/moskva-govorit/.

The theory of Russian spelling began to be created from the middle of the 18th century. (V.K. Trediakovsky, M.V. Lomonosov). An important step towards the normalization of Russian spelling was taken at the end of the 18th century, when “ Dictionary of the Russian Academy " (1789-1794) and " Russian Grammar " (1802).

The first real experience of writing codification was the work of Ya.K. Grot " Russian spelling " (1885), which was reprinted more than once (URL: https://imwerden.de/pdf/grot_russkoe_pravopisanie_1894.pdf).

Russian spelling

In 1904, the Spelling Commission was established at the Academy of Sciences, which was supposed to deal with issues of spelling simplification. However, the first set of rules for Russian spelling was published only in 1956 - "Rules of Russian spelling and punctuation" (team led by M.V. Panov). One of the latest publications, which also takes into account the new vocabulary of the Russian language, is the reference book “Rules of Russian Spelling and Punctuation. Complete Academic Reference" , published by the Spelling Commission at the Institute of the Russian Language. V.V. Vinogradov.

12.3 History of the Russian alphabet

The history of Russian writing can be traced from the introduction of writing in Rus' in the 10th century. The modern Russian alphabet goes back to Cyrillic , which differed from it in the number of letters, their style and names. It is worth mentioning here that the first graphic system that was used to record texts in Old Church Slavonic was Glagolitic , which differed markedly from the Cyrillic alphabet that arose a little later.

Rice. 41. Glagolitic, Cyrillic (Večerka 2006, 132-133). Rice. 42. Kyiv Missal (Kyiv Glagolitic Sheets). Glagolitic monument of Slavic writing, IX/X c. (comparison of Glagolitic and Cyrillic). URL: http://manuscripts.ru/. nine0496 Bonus: game "Glagolic spaceship" created by the staff of the Institute of Church Slavonic of the Croatian Academy of Sciences The Glagolitic Spaceship Game

Initially Cyrillic consisted of 43 letters , some of them were originally doublet (denoted the same phonemes), some became doublet due to changes in the phonetic system of the language. Gradually, doublet letters fell out of use - so 12 letters disappeared. Two letters have been added: and were introduced by the Academy of Sciences in 1735; (Kasatkin 2014, 263).

Rice. 43. Monument to the letter Y, erected in Ulyanovsk (hometown of N. M. Karamzin) in 2005. URL: http://www.textologia.ru/russkiy/alfavit-istoria/interesnye-fakty-alfavit-bukv% D1%83/za-chto-ustanovlen-pamyatnik-bukve-e/3241/?q=463&n=3241. Rice. 44. Monument to the letter Yo, installed in Izhevsk in 2018. URL: https://izhlife.ru/town/84359-fotofakt-pamyatnik-bukve-e-poyavilsya-v-izhevske.html.

You can get acquainted with the history of the letter ё by watching the video and reading the interview (below).

33. How the letter Yo appeared URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PaTRxkNrHZE

Interview with I. Itkin, Candidate of Philology, about the letter ё and reforms in the history of the Russian language:

The history of the letter "ё" is one of the most mysterious phenomena in the history of Russian spelling

Mini-lecture by I. Itkin on the history of the letter ё in Russian:

34. History of the letter Yo (I. Itkin) URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0-qq1f34UL4

The oldest Russian handwriting - charter was distinguished by the severity of writing letters: each letter was written separately, perpendicular to the line, had angular shapes, there were no spaces between words. Gradually, the letters were rounded and various types of handwriting appeared, for example. handwritten (so-called cursive).

The oldest manuscripts of the Old Russian language include the Novgorod Psalter (988-1015) and the Ostromir Gospel (1056-1057), see below. nine0003

Old Russian

Old Russian is the language of the East Slavic population of the Old Russian state (mid 9th - 1st third of the 12th centuries) and Russian lands and principalities of the 12th-14th centuries; common ancestor of Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian languages ​​(Krysko 2018, online).

Rice. 45. Ostromir Gospel (title page) and the Novgorod Psalter (see links below and list of references).

Interesting facts

  • Manuscript (manuscript) Ostromirov Gospel is stored in the National Library of Russia (RNL) in St. Petersburg. The National Library of Russia provides access to photocopies of the most ancient texts of the Russian language. In 2017, the Internet resource "Ostromir Gospel" was opened: http://expositions.nlr.ru/ex_manus/Ostromir_Gospel/index.php.
  • Novgorod Psalter (another name is Novgorod Codex ) was found in July 2000 during excavations in Veliky Novgorod. The Novgorod Psalter is considered the oldest monument of (ancient) Russian writing. Until July 2000, the Ostromir Gospel was considered the oldest dated monument. The Novgorod Psalter is three small linden boards , each board has rectangular recesses filled with wax; the middle plank has such recesses on both sides. Thus, the psalter contains four wax pages (the so-called ceres). The psalter contains the main text (text on wax), which is the psalms, and "hidden" text (scratched on wood under wax) (Zaliznyak, Yanin 2001). More about the Novgorod Psalter in Czech: https://www.rodon.cz/ikony/Iluminovane-rukopisy/Novgorodsky-zaltar-nejstarsi-ruska-kniha-1676. nine0421
Rice. 46. ​​Novgorod Service Menaion of 1095, charter (RGADA, see references).

The first dated edition printed in the Muscovite state is "The Apostle" (1564) :

Rice. 47. "Apostle" 1564 (URL: http://www.spsl.nsc.ru/rbook/%D0%98%D0%B7%D0%B4%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B8% D1%8F%20%D0%98%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B0%20%D0%A4%D0%B5%D0%B4%D0%BE%D1%80%D0% BE%D0%B2%D0%B0/%D0%90%D0%BF%D0%BE%D1%81%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%BB-%D0%BC%D0%BE%D1% 81%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%B2%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%B5%20%D0%B8%D0%B7%D0%B4%D0%B0%D0% BD%D0%B8%D0%B5/index.html). nine0002 What is an "Apostle"?

You can read more about the first dated printed book published in the Moscow state here: https://virtmuseum. aonb.ru/z5/z5_ap64.html

The first reform of Russian writing was carried out in 1708-1710. under Peter I: a number of letters were excluded from the alphabet , the lettering was simplified and rounded. This font was called the civil alphabet or citizen (citizen). Cyrillic names of letters az, beeches, lead, etc. used in schools up to 1917. The modern names of the letters of the Russian alphabet a, be, ve came into use only after 1917.

"Civil alphabet with morals" was published in January 1710 with comments (corrections) of Peter I. You can find the full text by clicking on the link below the picture.

Rice. 48. Civil font, 1710. URL: https://www.prlib.ru/item/315769. Rice. 49. Cyrillic font. History of changes. URL: https://iz.ru/news/674069. Rice. 50. Russian newspapers of the last third 19th c. URL: Wikipedia, Google obrázky. Rice. 51. Languages ​​using the Cyrillic alphabet. URL: https://ruskaljetopis.hr/info.phtml?c=9&id=82.

Other You can read about changes in Russian graphics in (Knyazev, Pozharitskaya 2012, 370-375, 386-393), (Kasatkin 2014, 263-269) or in the interactive course by E.A. Kuzminova "From the history of the Russian alphabet":

From the history of the Russian alphabet (E.A. Kuzminova)

A microcourse on the letters of the Russian alphabet can be found here:

Letter of the day nine0041 Literature

Zaliznyak, A.A., Yanin, V.L. Novgorod code of the first quarter of the 11th century. - the oldest book of Rus'. Questions of linguistics . 2001 (5), p. 3-25.

KASATKIN, L.L. Modern Russian language: Phonetics: textbook. allowance for students. institutions of higher prof. education . 3rd ed., rev. M.: Publishing Center "Academy", 2014. 272 ​​p. ISBN 978-5-4468-0221-0.

KNYAZEV, S.V., POZHARITSKAYA, S.K. Modern Russian Literary Language: Phonetics, Orthoepy, Graphics and Spelling: Textbook for Universities . 2nd ed., revised. and additional Moscow: Academic Project; Gaudeamus, 2012. 430 p. ISBN 978-5-8291-1252-3 (Academic Project), 978-5-98426-101-2 (Gaudeamus).

KRYSKO, V.B. Old Russian language. Big Russian Encyclopedia . Electronic version, 2018. URL: https://bigenc.ru/linguistics/text/2631460.

KUZMINOVA, E.A. From the history of the Russian alphabet [online]. Access mode: http://www.philol.msu.ru/~rki/alphabet/index.html.

Spelling academic resource "Akademos" [online]. Access mode: http://orfo.ruslang.ru/.

Rules of Russian spelling and punctuation. Complete Academic Reference . Ed. V. V. Lopatina. M.: AST-Press Book, 2016. 432 p. ISBN 978-5-462-00930-3.

Project "Moscow speaks". In Word to the teacher [online]. Access mode: http://slovo.mosmetod.ru/proekty/moskva-govorit.

RGADA - Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts [online]. Access mode: http://rgada.info/index.php. nine0003

Modern Russian language. In 3 vols. T. 1. Phonetics. Phonology; Orthoepy; Graphics. Spelling; Lexicology; Phraseology; Morphemics. Word formation . Ed. S. M. Kolesnikova. M.: Yurait Publishing House, 2016. 306 p. ISBN 978-5-9916-5185-5.

VEČERKA, R. Staroslověnština v kontextu slovanských jazyků . 1. vydani. Olomouc: Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci; Praha: Nakladatelství Euroslavica, 2006. 273 s. ISBN 80-244-0889-9 (Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci), 80-85494-71-X (Nakladatelství Euroslavica).

Old Church Slavonic is the first literary language of the Slavs, created (invented) by Cyril and Methodius in the 9th century.

The letter ё began to be used instead of the two-letter combination io .

So, the letters ѱ (psi), Ѡ (omega) and the ligature Ѿ (from) were excluded. The letters e, i, y were introduced (instead of the digraph ou . The titles (superscripts indicating the abbreviated spelling of the word) and forces (accent marks) were also canceled.

Letter Name Letter Name

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