Phonics sounds of the alphabet

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With this alphabet chart, understand how to say the names of the letters and read about all the sounds of each letter from the alphabet. These are the basic phonetic sounds for American English. To learn important sounds using free videos online, go to Pronunciation in English: 500 Words.


Sound of Letter Name

All sounds of letter


A, a

ā-ee (long a to long e, also spell "ay")

, ā, ah, ā-uh, uh

cat, late, all, and, around

B, b




C, c


kuh, suh

cake, city

D, d




E, e


eh, ee, silent

bed, free, late

F, f




G, g


guh, juh

glad, large

H, h


huh, silent

hotel, what

I, i


ah-ee, ĭ

light, sit

J, j




K, k




L, l


luh, ul

lot, full

M, m




N, n




O, o

ō (oh)

ah, ō, uh, oo, ů

hot, slow, computer, fool, good

P, p




Q, q

Kyoo (kyū)



R, r


ruh, ur

race, stir

S, s


suh, zuh

stick, is

T, t


tuh, duh, N, silent, stopped tuh

table, better, mountain, interview, hot

U, u

Yoo (yū)

uh, yoo, oo,  ů

up, use, flute, full

V, v




W, w


wuh, silent

well, slow

X, x


ks, zuh

box, xylophone

Y, y


yuh, ee, ah-ee (i), ĭ

yes, happy, try, cylinder

Z, z





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ABC Phonics - 26 Letters and Sounds!

IIntroduce the ABC Phonics: Sing, Sign, and Read! book with four new letters, key phonics symbols, and sounds every two or three days. Always sing to review previous letters: Take advantage of the musical brain! Spend no more than five minutes engaging the children in active, systematic instruction, then provide at least four short (20-30 second) reviews during the day: before morning recess, lining up for lunch, out on the playground, leaving for the day.!

Spend no more than five minutes engaging the children in active, systematic instruction, then provide at least four short (20-30 second) reviews during the day: before morning recess, lining up for lunch, out on the playground, leaving for the day.

“Let’s practice a, b, c, and d again. a/“a”/ alligator. .. Now show me your ‘a’ handshape before you go outside.” Check and adjust each child’s fingerspelling—expect accuracy! Then, before lunch time, do another short review of a and b. This time, check that every child can accurately fingerspell the letter “b,” helping children as needed. By afternoon recess, review the song and the letter “c.” Expect all children to sing, sign, and fingerspell a, b, c, and d by the end of the day. Motivate the children and track progress: “We already know 4 letters and sounds. Wow―let’s do them again!”

Remind the children to show their parents how much they have learned and to keep practicing at home every night until they become ABC Phonics experts!

Give each family a framed and laminated copy of the Free Family ABC Wall Chart. Attach magnets on the back for refrigerator art. Communicate the importance of learning these foundation skills early on, encouraging families to weave daily practice into their routines.

Use the free ABC Phonics instructional videos in the classroom. These five quality videos are generously provided by our publisher, Sign2Me, and can also be accessed on our website ABC Phonics page. Show one ABC Phonics video at your back-to-school night and encourage parents to use all of them!

Raise your expectations. Create a compelling challenge for all learners: “We are going to learn all 26 letters and sounds in 20 days. “We can learn fast and then we will have a celebration!”

Immerse the children in consistent images from the ABC Phonics: Sing, Sign, and Read! program throughout the classroom: wall charts, miniature charts in literacy centers, posters in the hall, and copies of the book in your library. Fingerspell and refer to the key phonics images throughout the day, across the curriculum. Peruse our ABC Phonics page for classroom photos.

Challenge children to demonstrate A to Z mastery as soon as the first child is ready. Let each child sing, sign, and perform the ABC Phonics signs using the instrumental version on the CD for accompaniment. These children will motivate others! Present each new expert with the ABC Phonics Certificate (free download) or a specially designed ABC Champ badge or crown. While a child is performing for the class, the other children can silently fingerspell along. Make instructional time count!

Teach children to fingerspell their names and the names of their classmates. Sing, sign, spell, read, and write high-frequency “heart words.”

Use volunteers or 4th grade buddies to help harder-to-accelerate students: Trace over the letters while saying the name and sound. Play games with large ABC cards or miniature flash cards. Practice. Practice. Practice. Practice makes permanent so practice accurately! 

Send loaner copies of the ABC Phonics: Sing, Sign, and Read! book home for children to share. These books will later be used as guided reading materials: more experienced readers will enjoy reading the descriptions of each sign.

Refer to copies of the free miniature ABC Phonics Chart and the laminated Family Chart in the writing centers and literacy play centers. Keep planting the expectation: “Soon you’ll know all of these letters and sounds!”

See the ABC Phonics page for more instructional details, parent letters, informative articles and free ABC Phonics downloads.

Sign2Me is offering our colleagues 40% Off
ABC Phonics: Sing, Sign, and Read! products during September!

Email Bob Tarcea, [email protected]
Request order form for “ABC Phonics Special40”

High Expectations, Focus and Self-Regulation

Children develop focus and self-regulation. When I asked some master kindergarten teachers if they would challenge their children to learn 26 letters and sounds in 20 school days, Winter Curry quickly responded, “We’ll do it! I will simply let the parents know how important it is to make this their September Family Learning Project. ” She began brainstorming how she could fit more 20-30 second review sessions into the day. She already had a link to the instructional videos directly from her class website and planned to give each family a laminated ABC Phonics Chart (with magnetic tape attached) for refrigerator art!

Becky Leber shared tips on her joyful accelerated approach to ABC and Phonics Immersion
  • At the fall Parent Orientation (before school starts) she introduced the parents to ABC Phonics: Sing, Sign and Read! by showing them one of the 5 free instructional videos.
  • Then she actually took parents on a “computer walk” showing them exactly how to access the ABC Phonics page.
  • She gave families the ABC chart and enlisted their commitment to daily practice at home.
  • In the classroom, Becky sang the whole song all the way through every day and taught four new letters at a time. Her children helped each other practice. Some years, the children performed the song for the whole school. When kindergarten classes are large, two children perform together to demonstrate mastery. (Use track 4 of the instructional version of the accompanying ABC Phonics music CD.)
  • With children who do not easily learn every letter and sound, her Title I school provides RTI intervention.

We applaud Head Start programs and Title I schools that include the Family Reference Chart and links to video clips of ABC Phonics: Sing, Sign, and Read! with spring registration. When families practice all summer we see amazing results come September in kindergarten.

Turtle” is a favorite sign: Your children will delight in learning ABC Phonics skills with American Sign Language. We promise! –N.E.

Photos from ABC Phonics: Sign, Sign, Read! by Nellie Edge and Sign2Me Early Learning© 2010.

Your ABC Phonics: Sing, Sign, and Read! program is the foundation for teaching phonemic awareness and phonics skills. Use the ABC Phonics: Sing, Sign, and Read! Program for mastery of phonemic awareness skills.

  • Emphasize beginning sounds and accurate fingerspelling
  • Clap and count the syllables for each key phonics symbol
  • Listen and identify ending sounds
  • Play with rhymes (There are 9 words that make great rhymes!)
  • Stretch out words and count phonemes
  • Segment and blend consonant vowel consonant (CVC) words

The ultimate result of strong phonemic awareness skills is to be able to write each key phonics symbol a-z, listening for sounds and encoding sounds to print! Students will then be able to fearlessly tackle any unknown word.

Why not take the challenge?

20 days to 26 letters and sounds!
This approach to joyful accelerated literacy connects
ABC Phonics: Sing, Sign, and Read! and the Common Core Standards.

Common Core is, after all, a call for accelerating students’ literacy development. …learners achieve when they are working toward crystal clear and ambitious goals that they can envision, and when they receive feedback in the form of medals and mission… become a school where professionalism involves recognizing implementing and improving upon high-impact teaching practices.

Excerpts from Pathways to the Common Core: Accelerating Learning by Lucy Calkins, Mary Ehrenworth, and Christopher Lehman. Heinemann, 2012.

Share your ABC Phonics success stories with us. They may appear on our upcoming blog!

Phonetics of the Russian language for foreigners | Russian alphabet pronunciation Letters Sounds

Russian alphabet for foreigners: often not only foreigners who begin to learn Russian, but also advanced level foreigners cannot correctly pronounce some Russian sounds. We will talk about what letters of the Russian alphabet cause difficulties for foreigners , we will give recommendations for teachers on how to teach phonetics of the Russian language, what phonetic exercises for foreigners need to be performed and what difficulties may arise in their implementation, we will separately talk about how to put the pronunciation of Russian sounds , which cause the greatest difficulties for foreigners.

Russian as a foreign language

How to teach Russian pronunciation: letters and sounds
Lessons for teachers of Russian as a foreign language (RFL)

all letters of the Russian alphabet can mean several different sounds, for example: the letter E can mean the sounds [E], [YE], [I], and sometimes even the letter E can mean the sound [Y] (after the consonants Zh, Sh, C without accents: price, wife).

Setting the pronunciation of is another difficulty for teachers of Russian as a foreign language when teaching Russian to both beginners and foreigners continuing to study Russian. Below are recommendations, how to put the pronunciation of Russian sounds in the lessons of Russian as a foreign language.

Rules for staging Russian sounds. Teaching Russian phonetics

Russian phonetics for foreigners: work on staging any sound of the Russian language should begin with the formulation of phonemic hearing , i. e. first you need to ensure that the foreigner distinguishes sounds by ear. This is important because many Russian sounds sound the same to foreigners. For example, if your student says “grandfather” instead of “girl”, and when you correct him, he answers that he said so, then this means that your student does not distinguish sounds [D] and [V] by ear, they are for it sound the same.

In order for foreigners to learn to distinguish sounds by ear, we recommend doing the following exercises :

Exercise "Playing with cards" :

1. Take two sheets of paper, write on them the sounds you will practice. For example, on one sheet we write D, and on the other - V. Let's give these cards to a foreigner. The teacher pronounces the sounds [D] and [V] in random order, and the foreigner must raise the corresponding card. Of course, the teacher must tell the foreigner if he makes a mistake.

2. Then the teacher pronounces syllables, for example: wa - yes, du - wu, ava - hell, etc. , and the foreigner must raise the “D” card or the “B” card.

Phonetic dictation exercise :

The teacher dictates sounds, syllables, words to the student, and the foreigner writes down what he hears.

! Please note that in the exercise “Playing with Cards” and “Phonetic Dictation”, when practicing consonants, you do not need to dictate words that end in voiced paired consonants (B, C, D, D, F, Z), because. when pronouncing at the end of a word, voiced paired consonants are stunned. For example, if you dictate to a foreigner “bow”, “meadow”, then the foreigner will write down “bow”, “bow”, because “meadow” is pronounced like “lu[K]”, while your foreign student will not make a mistake, because this is a phonetic, not a spelling dictation.

When a foreigner began to distinguish Russian sounds by ear, the teacher can already change places with the foreigner, i.e. the teacher shows the card, and the foreigner says what is written. At this stage, another problem arises: a foreigner hears and understands how a Russian sound should sound, but cannot pronounce it correctly. The greatest difficulties for foreigners arise when pronouncing the following sounds: [S], [Y], [R], [F], [C], [W], [Sh] . Below we will consider the rules for setting these sounds and give recommendations on how to explain Russian phonetics to foreigners, how to conduct phonetic exercises for foreigners.

Russian alphabet - Letters I, Y

Pronunciation of sounds [I], [Y]. Phonetic exercises for foreigners

The pronunciation of the Russian vowel sound [Ы] causes difficulties for almost all foreigners. For example, foreigners pronounce "mi" instead of "we" and "beat" instead of "be".

The pronunciation of the vowel sound [I] causes much less difficulty for foreigners. The Russian sound [I] is similar to the English sound [i:]. To pronounce the sound [I] you need to point the tongue forward and touch the tip of the tongue to the lower teeth. When pronouncing [I], your students need to smile a little :).

Let's return to the formulation of the problematic Russian sound [Ы] . When pronouncing it, the whole tongue must be pushed back and strain the back of the tongue . Now the tip of the tongue no longer touches the lower teeth, but is pushed back. When we pronounce [ы], we no longer smile (of course, such a complex sound!) and [G]. The pronunciation of the sounds themselves [K] and [G] usually does not cause difficulty for foreigners, but when they are pronounced, the back of the tongue automatically tenses, and this is what we use in our phonetic exercise for foreigners:
yk - yg - yk - yg - yk - yg - yk - yg
ky - gy - ky - gy - ky - gy - ky - gy - s - s - s - s - s - s - s
ky - km - we - washed
gy - hmy - we - washed
ky - kvy - you - howl
gy - gvy - you - howl
ky - kby - would - was
gy - gby - would - was
soap, was, exit, exhibition, was, son, cheese, letters, smart

Russian alphabet - Letter Y

Pronunciation of the Russian sound [Y]. How to explain the sound [Y] to foreigners?

You should pay attention to foreigners who begin to study the phonetics of the Russian language to the letter of the Russian alphabet Y. The sound [Y] is found in Russian speech much more often than the letter Y , because the vowels E, Yo, Yu, I are at the beginning of the word, after vowels and after the letters b and b denote two sounds: [YE], [YO], [YU], [YA], for example: [YO] lka, with [YE] hat, kal [YA] n.

Difficulty in pronouncing the sound [Y] (often this sound in transcription is denoted as [j]) usually occurs in foreigners if the letter Y is at the end of the word, for example: foreigners pronounce “sanatoriums” instead of “sanatorium” or “my” instead of "my". Very often, foreigners do not distinguish by ear the sounds [Y] and [I], then it is advisable to do the exercise “Playing with cards” with foreigners.

How to explain to a foreigner the difference between the sounds [Y], [I] and how to teach a foreigner to pronounce the sound [Y]?

It is necessary to explain to a foreigner that the sound [Y] is pronounced VERY briefly. The sound [And] can be sung: and-and-and-and-and-and-and-and-and-and ..., and the sound [Y] must be pronounced very briefly , as if someone pricked with a pin: OH! The sound [Y] is pronounced with much more tension than the sound [I], when the sound [Y] is pronounced, the middle part of the tongue rises more, so a narrower gap is created between the palate and the tongue and the air stream breaks out with more pressure, more powerfully.

Pay the attention of foreigners to the spelling of the letter of the Russian alphabet Y :

Often foreigners confuse not only the sounds [Y] and [I], but also the letters Y, I. Foreigners can write the letter Y as the letter I (without a check mark above the letter Y), they do this by analogy with writing the letters Yo and E, because. it is not necessary to put a dot over the letter Y in writing.

The teacher should draw the foreigner's attention to the fact that when writing the letter Y, you should always put a tick over the letter, because the absence of a check mark above the letter Y is a spelling and grammatical error. Compare: "my favorite cowboy" and "my favorite cowboys."

Russian alphabet - Letter Р

Pronunciation of the Russian sound [Р]. Phonetic exercises for foreigners

When pronouncing the Russian consonant sound [R], the tense tip of the tongue vibrates near the alveoli (these are tubercles above the upper teeth) under the action of an air jet.

So, when pronouncing the sound [R], the tip of the tongue is slightly bent upwards, touches the tubercles above the teeth and is tense. But it is quite difficult for a foreigner to make the tip of the tongue vibrate. To help a foreigner, we turn to the helper sounds [T] and [D], during the pronunciation of which the tongue automatically takes the desired position at the alveoli.

Let's start our phonetic exercises.
Let's start the motorcycle!
dr – dr – dr – dr – dr – dr – dr – dr – dr – dr – dr – dr – dr – dr – dr – dr – dr…
Whose motorcycle started up?

Let's do more exercises (pronunciation of the sound [P]):
dra - dra - dra - dra - dra - dra - dra - fight
dro - dro - dro - dro - dro - dro - dro - fraction dru - dru - dru - dru - dru - friend
tra - tra - tra - tra - tra - tra - tra - trauma
tro - tro - tro - tro - tro - tro - tro - rope
tru – tru – tru – tru – tru – tru – tru – coward

dra - dra – dra – ra – cancer

draw - draw – draw – ro – rock

dru - dru – dru – ru – pen

dry - dry – dry – ry – fish

tra - tra – tra – ra – frame

tro-tro – tro – ro – robot

true - true – true – ru – Russian

tra - tra – try – ry – market

To practice the pronunciation of the soft sound [P'], in phonetic exercises, after the letter P, you need to use vowels that soften the previous consonant (E, Yo, I, Yu, Ya).

Russian alphabet - Letter Zh

Pronunciation of the Russian sound [Ж]. Phonetic exercises for foreigners

Another letter of the Russian alphabet, the letter Zh, is unusual for foreigners both in its spelling (some foreigners call it a butterfly) and in its pronunciation.

When pronouncing the sound [Ж], the tip of the tongue is raised to the alveoli (to the tubercles behind the upper teeth) and the tongue is pulled back.

To produce the zhu zhzh sound [Ж], we again turn to helper sounds: the consonant [Г] and the vowels [О], [У]. The sound [G] will help to pull the tongue back, and the sounds [O] and [U] will help to stretch forward and round the lips.

Phonetic exercises for foreigners:
gzhu - gzhu - gzhu - zhu - magazine, bug, buzz, tell
gzho - gzho - gzho - zho - yellow, alien, knife, circle

[Ж], but the difference lies in the fact that the sound [Ш] is pronounced without the participation of the vocal cords (no voice, only noise). Below we will talk separately about the letters of the Russian alphabet Sh and Shch. How to explain the Russian sound [Ts] to foreigners?

The Russian sound [Ts] is a single and indivisible sound, although it is similar to the combination of sounds [T + S], which is why some foreigners pronounce two sounds [TS] instead of the letter Ts. In this case, the foreigner must be explained that the sound [T] must be pronounced as short as possible !

It is better to practice the pronunciation of the sound [Ts] in words where the letter T is after the letters T or D, for example: fathers, to the father, with the father, thirteen, thirty, twenty, twelve, well done ...

Russian alphabet - Letters Ш and SC

Pronunciation of Russian sounds [Ш] and [Ш]. Phonetic exercises for foreigners

Foreigners often confuse the sounds [Ш] and [Ш] and do not even distinguish these sounds by ear. In this case You already know what to do! Of course, do the exercise "Game with cards. "

Compare how the tongue and lips are positioned when pronouncing the sound [Ш] and the sound [Ш]:

Solid sound [W]

Soft sound [S]


Moved back, the back of the tongue is tense.

Promoted forward, has a convex shape, which is raised to the palate, the tongue is tense.

Tongue tip

Raised to alveoli (to the tubercles above the upper teeth).

More moved forward to the teeth.


Stretched and rounded.

Stretched into a smile.

When pronouncing the sound [Щ], the whole tongue moves forward, the middle part of the tongue is raised to the palate, the tongue is tense. When pronouncing the sound [Ш], the lips are less extended forward than when pronouncing the sound [Ш]. When pronouncing the sound [Ш], the corners of the lips are slightly stretched, and when pronouncing [Ш], we do not smile.

! The sound [Щ] is pronounced LONGER than the sound [Ш].

The sound [Щ] causes much more difficulties for foreigners. It is necessary to ensure that foreigners pronounce the sound [Щ] softly. Therefore, in the phonetic exercise, we use the vowel sound [I]:

Seek - look - shchi - shield
Seek - seek - shche - cheek
Seek - seek - shche - brush
Seek - seek - shch - feel

How to perform phonetic exercises correctly when teaching phonetics of the Russian language to foreigners

When you do any phonetic exercise , you must adhere to the following scheme:

1) When teaching the phonetics of the Russian language, the teacher first reads the letters, syllables, words, and the foreigner listens to the teacher and follows the text.
2) Then the teacher reads and the foreigner repeats.
3) And only now the foreigner reads on his own.

If you need to explain to a foreigner the position of the tongue when pronouncing a sound, you can show it with your hands. For example, the right hand is rounded, fingers pointing to the floor. Now your right hand is the palate, alveoli and teeth. And from the left hand we will make a tongue. Now you can show foreigners the position of the tongue in the mouth.

Thanks to this, we will be able to do without an intermediary language when explaining almost , which, of course, is a big plus.

We always recommend using as little intermediary language as possible in the lessons of Russian as a foreign language. such lessons are much more useful for foreigners studying the Russian language.

When creating materials for foreigners and teachers of Russian as a foreign language, we are always focused on making Russian language lessons not only as effective as possible, but also easy.

Materials on the Russian language for foreigners :
New communication textbook published by our Center: "New Russia: 127 live dialogues and the most important verbs for communication"

Distance course of methodology for those who want to teach Russian to foreigners Russian as a Foreign Language (RFL)»
- The course provides all the necessary knowledge for teaching Russian to foreigners.
- The course is adapted for those who do not have special philological training.
- The course will help novice RFL teachers find answers to questions that arise in the course of teaching Russian as a foreign language. Reviews about the course "Teaching Russian as a foreign language".

Phonetics. Sounds of speech. Alphabet grade 5 online training at Rostelecom Lyceum


Every day we pronounce the words we know well. But very rarely do we think about how we do it. For example, how do we manage to say such a familiar word "hello"? We pronounce a certain combination of sounds, which develops in our minds into the corresponding concept. In the word "hello" we made 11 sounds. Three of them are vowels, 8 are consonants. All these sounds are pronounced by us in a certain order. We pronounce not just sounds, because we consider sounds to be the noise of a car, the creak of an opening door, and the clatter of a horse. Animals also produce a variety of sounds. We pronounce the sounds that make up words. These are speech sounds.

Phonetics. Sounds and letters. Graphics

Phonetics is a branch of the science of language that studies the sounds of speech.

Sounds we pronounce and hear. But we can read and write. We see and write letters.

Graphics is a branch of the science of language that studies the designation of speech sounds by letters in writing.


Alphabet - letters arranged in a certain order.

There are 33 letters in the Russian alphabet. 10 letters stand for vowels and 21 for consonants. Two letters - ъ and ь - do not represent sounds.

Fig. 1. Russian alphabet (Source)

Knowing the alphabetical order will help us, for example, to navigate in a spelling or any other dictionary; various lists are arranged in alphabetical order, for example, the names of students in a class magazine.

Transcription of the word

We often have to memorize the spelling of unstressed vowels and doubled consonants. Why do we have to memorize the spelling of such words? Why do we have to look for test words and study a large number of spelling rules? This is because the pronunciation of a word does not always coincide with its spelling. And not always the number of sounds and letters in a word is the same. And we can write down not only the word according to the rules of spelling, but also using letters and additional signs to write down the sound of the word. This "sound" recording is called transcription.

Practical observation

Word transcription is written in square brackets.

Transcription of the word "milk" - [ malako ]. Please note that in an unstressed position, we do not pronounce the sound [o], but pronounce the sound [a]. This word has 6 letters and 6 sounds. Transcription of the word "railing" - [p'ir'ilaʹ]. In an unstressed position, the sound [and] is always pronounced. In addition, you see special characters in the form of a "comma" at the top of the letter. This is an apostrophe, it denotes the softness of the consonant.

Transcription of the word “shadow” – [t’en’]. Please note that the letter e in this word conveys the sound [e]. The soft sign does not represent a letter. Thus, in this word there are 4 letters, 3 sounds.

Transcription of the word "sun" - [söntse]. Here we pay attention to the unpronounceable consonant. We do not pronounce the sound [l] in this word, therefore, it is not displayed in the transcription either. Thus, in a word there are 6 letters, 5 sounds.

Transcription of the word "berry" - [j'agada]. This word has the letter and means two sounds, so it has 5 letters, 6 sounds.


You may have noticed that certain sounds or their combinations evoke associations in us about a particular phenomenon. For example, the combination of sounds [g] and [r] reminds us of thunder. In his poem, Fedor Tyutchev specifically repeats the combination of these sounds to create an image of a thunderstorm:0004 yes spring ne r vyy gr ohm,

As if r communicating and and gr th,

Gr hunts in the sky

Gr rub young askats…

Or an excerpt from a poem by Mikhail Lermontov. The poet, using the sound [l], conveys the image of flowing water, the smooth movements of a swimming mermaid:0011

Illuminated by l l una;

And old l as it is added l reduce to l una

Silver foam in l na.

This property of expressive speech is called sound recording.

The high musicality of poetry presupposes a subtle penetration into the peculiarities of sounding speech, into its ability to impress not only with the meaning of words, but also with their sound, their music.

At your leisure, you can try to talk about some phenomenon using sound writing. Or offer a creative competition in class for the most original use of sound writing.

It should be noted that the possibility of sound writing was noticed by the people long ago and was reflected in comic songs, ditties and, of course, in tongue twisters. Tongue twisters were invented not only for fun, they help to work out good diction. At first, the tongue twister is pronounced slowly, paying special attention to combinations of sounds that are difficult to pronounce. And then the tongue twister needs to be pronounced as quickly as possible, repeating it several times.

Dust flies across the field from the clatter of hooves.

The ship was carrying caramel, the ship ran aground. And the sailors ate caramel aground for two weeks.

Fields of millet fly in the field, and Frosya brings out the weeds.

All beavers are kind to their beavers.

Two puppies, cheek to cheek, pinch the brush in the corner.


  1. Russian language. Theory. 5–9 cells: V. V. Babaitseva, L. D. Chesnokova - M .: Drofa, 2008.
  2. Russian language. 5th class: ed. M. M. Razumovskaya, P. A. Lekanta - M.: Drofa, 2010.
  3. Russian language. Practice. 5th class: ed. A. Yu. Kupalova. – M.: Drofa, 2012.

Additional recommended links to Internet resources

  1. Scientific and educational portal "". On the origin of the Russian alphabet (Source)
  2. Encyclopedia of F. A. Brockhaus and I. A. Efron. Phonetics (Source)


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