What should 4 year olds be learning
4-to-5 Year Old Child Developmental Milestones
Written by Hedy Marks
In this Article
- 4- to 5-Year-Old Development: Language and Cognitive Milestones
- 4- to 5-Year-Old Development: Movement Milestones and Hand and Finger Skills
- 4- to 5-Year-Old Development: Emotional and Social Development
- 4- to 5-Year-Old Development: How to Help Your Child
- 4- to 5-Year-Old Development: How to Keep Your Child Safe
- 4- to 5-Year-Old Development: When to Be Concerned
Your child is growing up. Have you noticed that your 4- to 5-year-old is becoming more independent and self-confident? If not, you will in the coming year.
Most children this age begin to develop greater independence, self-control, and creativity. They are content to play with their toys for longer periods of time, are eager to try new things, and when they get frustrated, are better able to express their emotions.
Although children grow and develop at their own pace, your child will likely achieve most of the following developmental milestones before they turn 6 years old.
4- to 5-Year-Old Development: Language and Cognitive Milestones
Your curious and inquisitive child is better able to carry on a conversation. In addition, your child's vocabulary is growing -- as is their thought process. Not only is your child able to answer simple questions easily and logically, but they should be able to express feelings better.
Most children at this age enjoy singing, rhyming, and making up words. They are energetic, silly, and, at times, rowdy and obnoxious.
Other language and cognitive milestones your child may achieve in the coming year include being able to:
- Speak clearly using more complex sentences
- Count 10 or more objects
- Correctly name at least four colors and three shapes
- Recognize some letters and possibly write their name
- Better understand the concept of time and the order of daily activities, like breakfast in the morning, lunch in the afternoon, and dinner at night
- Use future tense, such as, “We will go to the park soon. ”
- Have a greater attention span
- Follow two- to three-part commands. For example, "Put your book away, brush your teeth, and then get in bed."
- Recognize familiar word signs, such as "STOP"
- Know their address and phone number, if taught
- Understand everyday things like food and money
4- to 5-Year-Old Development: Movement Milestones and Hand and Finger Skills
Children learn through play, and that is what your 4- to 5-year-old should be doing. At this age, your child should be running, hopping, throwing and kicking balls, climbing, and swinging with ease.
Other movement milestones and hand and finger skills your child may achieve in the coming year include being able to:
- Stand on one foot for more than 9 seconds
- Do a somersault and hop
- Walk up and down stairs without help
- Walk forward and backwards easily
- Pedal a tricycle
- Copy a triangle, circle, square, and other shapes
- Draw a person with a body
- Stack 10 or more blocks
- Use a fork and spoon
- Dress and undress, brush teeth, and use the toilet without much help
4- to 5-Year-Old Development: Emotional and Social Development
Your self-centered child is now figuring out that it is not always about them. At this age, children are starting to understand about other people's feelings. Your 4- to 5-year-old should be better able to work through conflicts and control their emotions.
Emotional and social development milestones your child may achieve at this age include:
- Enjoys playing with other children and pleasing their friends
- Shares and takes turns, at least most of the time, and understands rules of games
- Understands and obeys rules; however, your 4- to 5-year-old will still be demanding and uncooperative at times.
- Is becoming more independent
- Expresses anger verbally, rather than physically (most of the time)
- Gets the difference between make-believe and reality
4- to 5-Year-Old Development: How to Help Your Child
There’s a ton you can do every day to help your child learn and grow, such as:
- Allow plenty of time for running around and playing, and help with activities like using monkey bars and learning to swing.
- Give your child chores to do around the house.
- Let your child choose activities with friends, and let them work out issues that come up between them.
- Point out common words and symbols in books or when you’re out and about.
- Read to your child every day -- ask questions about the stories, like “What do you think happens next?”
- Suggest activities like drawing, writing letters, and doing projects with glue, scissors, and other art supplies.
- Talk to your child and listen closely -- ask about likes and dislikes, worries, and what they did with friends today.
- Work with your child on how to manage strong feelings, like anger.
When it comes to TVs, smartphones, computers, and tablets, doctors suggest that you:
- Keep technology out of bedrooms.
- Limit screen time to 1 hour a day of high-quality programs.
- Talk about what you watch together and how it applies to the world.
4- to 5-Year-Old Development: How to Keep Your Child Safe
As children gain new abilities, they can do more and more on their own. That’s just what you want, but it means a shift in how you keep them safe.
Here are some tips to keep in mind:
- Always have your child ride in the backseat of a car in either a car seat or booster seat.
- Ask about guns and gun safety in homes where your child goes to play.
- Don’t keep guns in your home. If you have one, keep it unloaded, locked away, and separate from bullets. And make sure children can’t get the key.
- Don’t let your child play in the street, including riding bikes -- teach that the curb is the limit.
- Show your child how to cross the street -- look both ways and listen for traffic -- but help your child cross until around age 10.
- Sign your child up for swimming lessons, but don’t let your child swim alone and always keep a watchful eye in and around water.
- Teach your child not to play with lighters and matches -- and check your smoke detectors regularly.
- Wear helmets when biking, skating, skiing, and doing other activities where falls can lead to head injuries.
You can also start to teach your child basic safety ideas like:
- Ask only certain adults for help, like those with uniforms or name badges.
- Don’t open the door to your house or apartment unless you’re with an adult.
- Make sure your child knows their full name, address, and phone number.
- Talk about what to do in an emergency, like dialing 911.
And teach your child that certain body parts are off-limits. Tell your child that:
- No one can ask you to keep a secret from your parents.
- No one can ask you to see or touch your private parts -- the parts that a bathing suit covers.
- No one can ask you to look at, touch, or help with their private parts.
4- to 5-Year-Old Development: When to Be Concerned
All kids grow and develop at their own pace. Don't worry if your child has not reached all of these milestones at this time. But you should notice a gradual progression in growth and development as your child gets older. If you don't, or if your child has signs of possible developmental delay, as listed below, talk to your child's doctor.
Possible signs of developmental delay in 4- to 5-year-old children include:
- Being extremely afraid, shy, or aggressive
- Being extremely anxious when separated from a parent
- Being easily distracted and unable to focus on one task for more than five minutes
- Not wanting to play with other children
- Having a limited amount of interests
- Not making eye contact or responding to other people
- Being unable to say their full name
- Rarely pretending or fantasizing
- Often seeming sad and unhappy and not expressing a wide range of emotions
- Being unable to build a tower using more than eight blocks
- Having trouble holding a crayon
- Having problems eating, sleeping, or using the bathroom
- Having trouble undressing, cannot brush their teeth, or wash and dry hands, without help
Also, if your child resists or struggles with doing things that they were once able to do, tell your child's doctor. This can be a sign of a developmental disorder. If your child does have developmental delay, there are many treatments available to help your child overcome it.
Developmental Milestones: 4 to 5 Year Olds (Preschool)
From 4 to 5 years old, your child’s gross motor skills (using their arms and legs to move and play) and their fine motor skills (working on crafts and puzzles) are still developing. Play time becomes increasingly imaginative and is an important part of children’s growth.
Doctors use certain milestones to tell if a child is developing as expected. There’s a wide range of what is considered normal, so some children gain skills earlier or later than others. Children who were born prematurely reach milestones later in life. Always talk with your doctor about your child’s progress, especially if there are concerns.
What can my 4- to 5-year-old child do at this age?
As your child continues to grow, you will notice new and exciting abilities that your child develops. While children may progress at different rates, the following are some of the common milestones children may reach in this age group:
- Sing songs
- Skip and hop on one foot
- Catch and throw a ball overhand
- Walk downstairs alone
- Draw a person with three separate body parts
- Build a block tower with 10 blocks
- Understand the difference between fantasy and reality
- Draw a circle and square
- Dress themselves
- Able to fasten large buttons without help
- Pull up a zipper after it is fastened
- Jump rope
- Walk backward
- Balance on one foot for at least 5 seconds
- Use scissors
- Begin learning how to tie shoes
- Draw a triangle and diamond
- Draw a person with six body parts
- Know address and phone number
- Recognize and recite the alphabet
- Write first name
- Start to help with chores around the house
- Start to lose their baby teeth
What can my 4- to 5-year-old child say?
Speech development in children is very exciting for parents as they watch their children become social beings that can interact with others. At this age, a child can usually understand that letters and numbers are symbols of real things and ideas, and that they can be used to tell stories and offer information. Most will know the names and gender of family members and other personal information. They often play with words and make up silly words and stories.
4 and 5-year-olds vocabulary is between 1,000 and 2,000 words. Speech at this age should be completely understandable, although there may be some developmental sound errors and stuttering, particularly among boys.
While every child develops speech at his or her own rate, the following are some of the common milestones children may reach in this age group:
- May put together four to five words into a sentence
- Will ask questions constantly
- May know one color or more
- Likes to tell stories
- May use some “bad” words (if he or she has heard them spoken repeatedly)
- May put together six to eight words into a sentence
- May know four or more colors
- Knows the days of the week and months
- Can name coins and money
- Can understand commands with multiple instructions
- Talks frequently
What does my 4- to 5-year-old child understand?
As a child’s vocabulary increases, so does his/her understanding and awareness of the world around them. Children at this age begin to understand concepts and can compare abstract ideas.
While children may progress at different rates, the following are some of the common milestones children may reach in this age group:
- Begins to understand time
- Begins to become less aware of only one’s self and more aware of people around him/her
- May obey parent’s rules, but does not understand right from wrong
- Believes that his or her own thoughts can make things happen
- Increased understanding of time
- Curious about real facts about the world
- May compare rules of parents with that of friends
Wellness and Fitness Milestones
By the time kids are 3 to 5 years old, their physical skills, like running, jumping, kicking, and throwing, have come a long way. Now they’ll continue to refine these skills and build on them to learn more complex ones. Take advantage of your child’s natural tendency to be active. Regular physical activity promotes healthy growth and development and learning new skills builds confidence.
How active should my child be at this age?
Kids at this age are learning to hop, skip and jump forward. They are eager to show off how they can balance on one foot, catch a ball or do a somersault. Preschoolers and kindergarteners also might enjoy swimming, playing on a playground, dancing and riding a tricycle or bicycle with training wheels.
Physical activity guidelines recommend that preschoolers and kindergarteners should:
- Be physically active throughout the day
- Move and engage in both active play and structured (adult-led) physical activities
- Do activities such as jumping, hopping and tumbling to strengthen bones and muscles
Should my 4- to 5-year-old child participate in sports?
Many parents look into organized sports to get 4 and 5-year-olds active. The average preschooler has not mastered the basics, such as throwing, catching and taking turns. Even simple rules may be hard for them to understand, as any parent who has watched their child run the wrong way during a game knows.
Starting too young can also be frustrating for kids and may discourage future participation in sports. If you decide to sign your child up for soccer or another team sport, be sure to choose a league that is right for their age and developmental stage. A peewee league that focuses on fun and learning the fundamentals might be great for a child still in preschool.
Family Fitness Tips
Playing together, running in the backyard or using playground equipment at a local park can be fun for the entire family. Other activities to try together, or for a group of preschoolers to enjoy, include:
- Playing games such as “Duck, Duck, Goose” or “Follow the Leader,” then mixing it up with jumping, hopping and walking backward
- Kicking a ball back and forth or into a goal
- Hitting a ball off a T-ball stand
- Playing freeze dance or freeze tag
Kids can be active even when they’re indoors. Designate a safe play area and try some active inside games such as:
- Treasure hunt: Hide “treasures” throughout the house and provide clues to their locations
- Obstacle course: Set up an obstacle course with chairs, boxes, and toys for the kids to go over, under, through and around
- Soft-ball games: Use soft foam balls to play indoor basketball, bowling, soccer or catch. You can even use balloons to play volleyball or catch
How long should my 4- to 5-year-old sleep?
4 to 5-year-olds should be sleeping around 10-12 hours at night. Those who get enough rest may no longer need a daytime nap and can benefit from some quiet time in the afternoon. This is the age where they might be in preschool or in kindergarten. As they give up naps, they may go to bed at night earlier than they did as toddlers.
Check out our guide about Healthy Sleep for Children for more info.
Communicating with our kids is one of the most pleasurable and rewarding parts of parenting. Children learn by absorbing information through daily interactions and experiences not only with us, but with other adults, family members, other kids, and the world.
Between the ages of 4 and 5, many kids enter preschool or kindergarten programs, with language skills a key part of learning in the classroom.
How does my 4- to 5-year-old child interact with others?
A very important part of growing up is the ability to interact and socialize with others. This can be a frustrating transition for the parent as children go through different stages, some of which are not always easy to handle. While every child is unique and will develop different personalities, the following are some of the common behavioral traits that may be present in your child:
- Be very independent and may want to do things on his or her own
- Be selfish and do not like to share
- Be moody; mood swings are common in this age group
- Be aggressive during mood swings towards family members
- Have a number of fears
- Have imaginary playmates
- Enjoy exploring the body and may play doctor and nurse
- “Run away” or threaten to do so
- Fight with siblings
- Play with others in groups
- Generally, be more cooperative and responsible than 4-year-olds
- Be eager to please others and make them happy
- Have good manners
- Dress self completely without help
- Get along well with parents
- Enjoy cooking and playing sports
- Become more attached to parent as they enter school
Interacting with Your Child
Kids learn more through interactive conversation and play. Reading books, singing, playing word games and simply talking to kids will increase their vocabulary while providing increased opportunities to develop listening skills. As kids gain language skills, they also develop their conversational abilities. Kids 4 to 5 years old can follow more complex directions and enthusiastically talk about things they do. They can make up stories, listen attentively to stories and retell stories.
Here some ways you can help boost your child’s communication skills:
- Talk about the day’s activities
- Talk with your child about the books you read together
- Talk with your child about the TV programs and videos you watch together
- Keep books, magazines, and other reading material where kids can reach them without help
- Help kids create their own “This Is Me” or “This Is Our Family” album with photographs or mementos
How can I help increase my preschool child’s social ability?
Consider the following as ways to foster your preschool child’s social abilities:
- Offer compliments for good behavior and achievements
- Encourage your child to talk to you and be open with his or her feelings
- Read to your child, sing songs and talk with him or her
- Spend quality time with your child and show him or her new experiences
- Encourage your child to ask questions and explore
- Encourage physical activity with supervision
- Arrange times for your child to be with other children, such as in play groups
- Give your child the chance to make choices, when appropriate
- Use time-out for behavior that is not acceptable
- Encourage your child to express his or her anger in an appropriate manner
- Limit television watching (or other screen time) to 1 to 2 hours a day. Use free time for other more productive activities.
When should I call the doctor?
You should talk to your doctor if you suspect your child has a problem with hearing, language skills or speech clarity. A hearing test may be one of the first steps to find out if your child has a hearing problem.
Communication problems among kids in this age group include:
- Hearing problems
- Trouble following directions
- Trouble asking or answering questions
- Difficulty holding a conversation
- Poor vocabulary growth
- Trouble learning preschool concepts, such as colors and counting
- Trouble putting sentences together
- Unclear speech
Some kids will outgrow these problems. Others might need speech therapy or further evaluation. This is especially important to assess at a young age because some children that have difficulty with communication may get frustrated, angry and even aggressive because they cannot relay their thoughts and feelings clearly.
Reviewed by Dr. Priya Mody, Pediatric & Adult Medicine, CHOC Primary Care – May 2021
What should a child be able to do at 4 years old? Development, skills and abilities
Accumulated experience is not only about mature adults. A four-year-old child also has his own - albeit small, but noticeable in comparison with previous periods of development - life experience. At 4 years old, the child is still a baby, especially in the eyes of his parents: he talks funny, is surprised by the new and asks a lot of questions. But growing up is noticeable even in the appearance of a four-year-old. Children's swelling is smoothed out, and the child begins to resemble a small adult.
If the developmental norms for three-year-old children are more variable, then for four-year-olds - these norms are already outlined quite clearly. Knowing what a child should be able to do at 4 years old, parents will be able to track and correct possible deviations.
- Basic knowledge and skills in 4 years
- Physical Development Standards
- Differences between boys and girls
- Weight and height
- Physical skills
- Motor skills
- Fine motor skills
- Sensory Development and Dental Care
- Speech of a 4 year old child
- If the child does not speak or does not speak well?
- Second language learning
- Socialization: communication, emotions
- Psychological condition
- Intellectual development
- Cognitive development
- Life skills
- Daily routine and childcare
- When should I worry about a child's development?
- How to help a child's development?
Basic knowledge and skills at 4 years old
What a child should be able to do at four years old - basic knowledge and skills:
- good control over your body: move confidently and navigate in space;
- be able to count up to five and know what numbers up to five look like;
- speaking well enough: speech should become clearer compared to the age of three;
- have self-service skills;
- to understand some social norms: for example, to distinguish good deeds from bad ones.
Norms of physical development
Between the ages of three and four, the child does not grow as fast as at an earlier age. But acquired physical and motor skills are honed, and new ones appear. At the age of four, differences in the physical abilities of boys and girls become noticeable.
Differences between boys and girls
Although the weight and height of four-year-old children of different sexes is still the same on average, the difference in physical development is already clearly visible: good to ride a bike.
Researchers studying the thinking patterns of preschool children found that this difference in development between boys and girls is related to the structure of the brain. Four-year-old girls have a well-developed left hemisphere of the brain, which is responsible for developed intelligence and fluent speech.
With age, intellectual differences between children of different sexes are erased, and physical differences become even more noticeable.
Weight and height
The average height of children at the age of four is 102-103 centimeters. The average weight is 16-18 kilograms. There may be deviations up or down from the average height and weight, depending on hereditary factors and the lifestyle of a particular child.
If your baby is less than 94 centimeters at 4 years old, or weighs less than 12 or more than 25 kilograms, it may be worth changing the daily routine and nutrition after consulting a pediatrician.
The norm of weight and height specifically for your son or daughter can be calculated as follows: in the interval between three and four years, the child should grow by 6-7 centimeters, and the weight should increase by 1-3 kilograms.
Physical skills that most four-year-olds have:
- confidently handle a tricycle, a scooter;
- eat entirely on their own, using cutlery deftly and appropriately;
- are able to handle small details of objects: they correctly compose multi-level pyramids, assemble construction sets and puzzles according to instructions or with the help of an adult.
The four-year-old's coordination develops better, acquired motor skills are fixed and new ones appear:
- can jump high and far, can somersault;
- tries to hit the target with the ball, catches and holds the ball with both hands;
- standing on one leg, keeps balance for at least 10 seconds, makes several jumps on one leg;
- becomes quite flexible, easily tilting the body from a standing or sitting position, for example, in order to put on shoes;
- can walk on tiptoe;
- dresses and undresses without the help of an adult, or with a little help if you need to deal with difficult closures or laces.
Fine motor skills
The formation of a baby's speech, the correct development of thinking and memory depend on well-developed fine motor skills. It's good if by the age of four a child has the following fine motor skills:
- colors pictures without going beyond the outline;
- tries to lead the pencil evenly when drawing in dots, does not take his hand off the sheet of paper;
- outlines samples, stencils with a pencil;
- launches the top;
- folds fingers to show shapes, such as "flashlight";
- laces his own shoes, or at least tries to cope with the laces;
- strings buttons or beads with large holes on the thread; The
- cuts out paper figures fairly evenly with scissors.
If your child does not yet master each of these skills, it is easy to help him: learn how to tie shoelaces together, play with beads, show how figures from fingers are folded.
Sense organs development and dental care
At 4 years old, a child develops almost the same sharp vision as adults. Four-year-olds are rarely ready to read, but it is already possible to introduce the baby to letters. The main thing is to choose books, cards and other manuals where the letters are printed in large print - so children's eyesight will not strain too much.
The hearing of children is already fully developed at the age of four. Improving sense of smell : the child senses and identifies complex odors. Skin retains sensitivity to cold, the baby feels the heat just like adults. Children at the age of four feel the taste of food almost like adults, but with a slight difference: in a multi-component dish, the child mainly distinguishes the main component, poorly recognizing the flavors of the other components.
Four year olds already have 16-20 milk teeth . Due to the fact that milk teeth are much more vulnerable than permanent teeth, you need to carefully monitor the hygiene of the child's oral cavity: teach the baby to brush his teeth regularly, treat problem teeth in time. Keeping milk teeth healthy is very important: early removal of milk teeth can cause improper jaw formation and lead to other problems. So, in children who have lost milk teeth early, facial features may be distorted.
Read also Why is it important to take care of milk teeth? All about children's dental problems.
The speech of a child at 4 years old
The passive vocabulary of a child at 4 years old is 3000 words: this includes those words that the baby actively uses in speech, and those whose meaning he knows, but rarely used in speech. Passive vocabulary includes, for example, obsolete words that are often found in fairy tales: plow, upper room, stupa and the like.
A four-year-old child's active vocabulary includes as many words as he needs to communicate with others - usually about 1000 words.
If the child does not speak or does not speak well?
A child at the age of four years can coherently tell how the day went, uses sentences of eight words or more in his speech, clearly describes the objects he has seen.
The development of speech in four-year-old children may differ - girls usually speak smartly, it is more difficult for boys to choose the right words. But if the child does not speak at all or distorts the words, it is worth contacting pediatricians.
Lack of coherent speech at 4 years of age may indicate mental retardation, hearing problems, severe stress. A pediatric neurologist, an otolaryngologist and a speech therapist will help parents deal with the reason for the child's silence.
Learning a second language
English or another foreign language courses offer to start learning a second language from the age of four. At this age, children easily memorize foreign names of objects and phenomena and do not hesitate to make mistakes.
But it is desirable that the child already speaks Russian well enough before starting to learn a second language - otherwise serious problems with the pronunciation of foreign words are inevitable, which will later be difficult to correct.
Socialization: communication, emotions
At the age of 4, the baby knows and accepts the norms of behavior in society. In communication with peers, a four-year-old learns to share, to fulfill his role in the game, to recognize good and bad deeds. The child is increasingly striving to communicate with peers, gradually separating from their parents. True, there are exceptions: when the baby does not want to play with other children and it is more interesting for him to spend time alone. Such behavior is a variant of the norm and indicates the characteristics of the character of the child.
In communication with adults, a well-socialized child at the age of 4 follows the rules of etiquette: he addresses himself as “you” and by his first name and patronymic, follows the rules of behavior in kindergarten or in another institution. By the age of four, a kid should know that you can trust only familiar adults, and you should not talk to strangers and go somewhere.
The spectrum of emotions of four-year-old children is quite wide: they are able to recognize the emotions of other people, restrain their own emotions, actively use facial expressions and gestures to express feelings.
A four-year-old needs a personal space - it can be a separate room or a play corner - where he feels like a master. Invasion of personal space without permission, even from close people, the child can perceive painfully.
Four-year-old children do not feel fear well - the task of parents is to tell their son or daughter about possible dangers: about potentially dangerous household appliances, about homeless animals, about walking alone.
Normally, a psychologically developed child at the age of four should:
- take into account the assessment of his behavior by significant adults: parents, caregivers;
- to be as independent as possible;
- to be able to serve themselves in accordance with age.
Intellectual development can be considered appropriate for the age of four if the child has the following skills:
- knows his first and last name, parents' first and last names, his address;
- concentrates on the same activity for 10 minutes or more;
- knows and names at least seven colors;
- remembers the general plot and details of a story or fairy tale, can retell a short text;
- distinguishes and names seasons and times of day.
Four-year-old children, if adults are involved with them, already have knowledge of the world around them, elementary mathematics, music, drawing, construction.
The world around
A 4-year-old child knows about the world around:
- names of household items, details of these items, their purpose, for example: cup - cup handle - drink from a cup;
- names of some domestic and wild animals, trees and flowers, finds them in pictures;
- features of common professions: teacher, doctor, salesperson;
- names and differences of tastes: sweet, salty, bitter, sour;
- what are the names of other close relatives, in addition to mom and dad: grandfather, grandmother, sister, brother.
Four-year-old's knowledge of elementary mathematics:
- distinguishes between "a lot" and "little";
- knows geometric shapes: circle, square, triangle, oval, rectangle;
- distinguishes between right and left side;
- is oriented in space: knows where is the top, where is the bottom, and where are the edges;
- compares the sizes of different objects.
Development of a 4-year-old child in the field of musical creativity:
- taps the rhythm to the beat of favorite melodies;
- tries out children's songs;
- determines the mood and tempo of the music: happy or sad, fast or slow.
In the field of visual arts, four-year-olds can:
- coloring pages carefully;
- use different drawing tools: pencils, felt-tip pens, brushes;
- schematically depict people, animals, plants.
At the age of four, the imagination is already well developed, and children master some construction skills:
- they come up with the shape of the building and build it from blocks or other materials;
- know how to carefully cut with scissors;
- learn to work with natural materials.
At the age of 4, the baby tends to do a lot of things by himself, thanks to which his cognitive abilities are intensively developed. The abilities of children attending a kindergarten or other preschool institution usually develop a little faster than those of home children - communication with peers and regular classes with teachers positively affects the formation of basic cognitive abilities: memory, attention, thinking.
Read also Is it time for kindergarten? When is the best time to give up a child and what a parent needs to know.
Four-year-olds gradually learn to "manage" their memory. They already know how to memorize not only what is interesting, but also what is important to remember: for example, a home address, a poem for a holiday in kindergarten.
The child's ability to describe the past day, starting from the morning, indicates the correct development of memory. If during such a story the child is asked to describe in more detail a specific event of the past day, the child will remember this event and tell about it in more detail.
Children's attention is closely related to memory. At 4 years old, children can direct their attention to objects that are not interesting to them at the request of an adult - this is how voluntary attention is formed. It is still difficult for a four-year-old kid to concentrate on several things at the same time, but sometimes he succeeds. Attention becomes tenacious: the child can devote quite a lot of time to an exciting activity without being distracted.
The process of thinking in four-year-olds no longer occurs only through actions, as at an earlier age, but also through images. The kid begins to draw conclusions about objects and phenomena, not interacting with them directly, but, for example, seeing in the picture.
Thinking develops normally at the age of four if it can:
- find differences in two similar images;
- find an extra object among objects that have a common feature: for example, a wild animal among domestic animals, a tree among flowers;
- according to the description of the narrator, guess the object or phenomenon he has guessed.
Four-year-olds are partially self-supporting: dressing and undressing, using the toilet carefully, washing and brushing their teeth. They are well oriented in their home, they know where specific things should be.
At the age of 4, the child himself strives to master new skills, and parents can teach him new skills in everyday life:
- make the bed;
- take dirty clothes to the laundry;
- to keep order in a small area of the house, for example, in the bathroom.
Daily routine and childcare
Sample daily routine for a four year old:
|09.00||Calm games, developing activities|
|16.00||Active play or walk|
|19.00||Communication with relatives, developing activities|
|21.00||Going to bed|
If the child does not attend kindergarten, at the age of 4 he can refuse daytime sleep.
Four-year-olds need certain care from adults:
- remind your child of the importance of personal hygiene;
- take longer walks in fine weather;
- include hardening procedures in the daily routine: air and sun baths, rubdowns.
When should you worry about your child's development?
Features of a child that at the age of four may indicate a developmental delay:
- cannot concentrate on one activity even for a few minutes;
- does not control emotions, outbreaks of aggression occur;
- does not play with toys and is not interested in them;
- does not use complex sentences in speech, generally finds it difficult to express thoughts orally;
- is too mobile or, conversely, very slow.
If you notice these symptoms in your child, consult your local pediatrician.
How to help a child's development?
Activities to help your 4 year old develop properly:
- Simple physical and chemical experiments. For example, with water freezing in the cold, with mixing settled water with ink.
- Learning new mathematical concepts: "equal", "wide-narrow", "low-high".
- Reading children's books, retelling their fragments. Retellings can start with one paragraph, over time, the baby will be able to retell the whole chapter.
- Applications and modeling.
- Age-appropriate sports: skiing, swimming, running.
Games for the development of memory, attention and thinking of four-year-olds:
- Any role-playing games that allow children to use their imagination and imagine themselves in a new role. Such games can be improvised or organized: children can play the classic "daughters-mothers" themselves or, under the guidance of an adult, play according to a pre-thought-out plot, for example, "One Day at School" or "At the Doctor's Appointment".
- Games for the development of emotional intelligence. Ask the child to emotionally depict different moods: show a very tired person, a gloomy cloud, a smiling sun.
- The game "Think of another name" perfectly develops children's imagination. Invite the child to come up with other names for familiar items: a spoon is a “porridge picker”, boots are “armor from dirt”, rags for wiping dust are a “weapon for cleanliness”.
- Didactic games, age-appropriate: sorters, puzzles, developing cards.
- Blind drawing. The child draws without opening his eyes, and then comes up with what the resulting confusion could mean.
Despite noticeable maturation, the main occupation for a four-year-old child is playing. Try to include game moments in different life situations - even the process of dressing can be arranged as a fun game. Without feeling pressure and demands, your child will develop on time and at a pace that is comfortable for him!
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Children aged 4 to 5
Children from 4 to 5 years old
Development of Children from 4 to 5 years old. You are in the section "Children from 4 to 5 years old".
In this section, we will help you find out and determine the level of development of your child, namely, what your child should know and be able to do at the age of 4 to 5 years.
What a 4 year old should know and be able to do.
This article is for your reference and gives approximate norms for the degree of formation of your child's mental processes at this age. You can check his potential in different areas of knowledge, find out in which areas of knowledge your child succeeds, and in which additional attention and time are required.
In this section "Children from 4 to 5 years old" we have collected all the material published on our website, which will help you and your child to study, prepare for the next, more in-depth stage of classes.
Materials for your classes you can use at home, in kindergarten or in elementary grades.
A child aged 4 to 5 should be able to:
1. The child should be able to determine the location of objects: on the right, on the left, in the middle, above, below, behind, in front.
2. The child must know the basic geometric shapes (circle, oval, square, triangle and rectangle)
3. The child must know all the numbers (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9). Count items within ten, correlate the number of items with the desired number.
4. The child must be able to arrange the numbers from 1 to 5 in the correct sequence and in reverse order.
5. The child should be able to compare the number of objects, understand the meaning: more - less, equally. Make Unequal Item Groups Equal: Add one item to a group with fewer items.
6. The child gets acquainted with the graphic image of the number, learns to write numbers correctly.
1. Cards Teaching the child to count
2. Connect the numbers and color the picture
3. The game is learning geometric shapes
4. Introducing the child to Geometric shapes
5. Cards with numbers from 0 to 74 90 6 . Cards "which number is superfluous"
7. Game for learning Geometric shapes
8. Copy Numbers
9. Write numbers
10. Cards with numbers-coloring
11. Puzzles-triple geometric shapes
12. Puzzles-triple numbers and Counting
13. Geometric shapes. Developing memory
14. Geometric shapes. Develop Fine Motor Skills
15. Learn Geometric Shapes
16. Math Worksheet
17. Learn to Count. Developing memory with Geometric shapes
22. Correlate the number with the number
23. Entertaining tasks in mathematics
24. Orientation in space. Before and After
25. Cards with Numbers
26. Puzzle Counting from 1 to 10
27. Math with Dice
28. Didactic Math Games
29. Puzzle Counting from 1 to 10
30. Math for Kids with Dice
- Development of Thinking, Memory, Attention
A child aged 4 to 5 years should be able to:
1. The child should be able to find differences and similarities between two pictures (or between two toys).
2. The child must be able to fold according to the model of the building from the designer.
3. The child should be able to put together a cut picture from 2-4 parts.
4. The child must be able to complete the task within 5 minutes without being distracted.
5. The child must be able to fold the pyramid (cups, putting them into each other) without assistance.
6. The child must be able to put the missing fragments of pictures into the holes.
7. The child should be able to name a group of objects with a generalizing word (cow, horse, goat - domestic animals; winter, summer, spring - seasons). Find the extra item in each group. Find a match for each item.
8. The child should be able to answer questions such as: Is it possible to go sledding in summer? Why? Why wear warm jackets in winter? What are windows and doors for in a house? Etc.
9. The child should be able to choose opposite words: a full glass - an empty glass, a high tree - a low tree, go slowly - go quickly, a narrow belt - a wide belt, a hungry child - a child full, cold tea - hot tea, etc.
10. A child should be able to memorize pairs of words after reading by an adult: glass-water, girl-boy, dog-cat, etc.
11. The child should be able to see incorrectly depicted objects in the picture, explain what is wrong and why.
1. Find the extra object cards
2. Find the extra object cards. Part 2
3. Cards from the series find a pair
4. Find a shadow in the picture
5. Develop logical thinking
6. Big-small cards
8. Krasnoukhov's puzzle
9. Logic coloring
10. Development of Attention
11. Development of Thinking
12. Development of Memory
13. Development of Memory. Part 2 4047 904 15. Add the missing item
16. Game in opposites (Antonyms)
17. Entertaining activities with the child
18. Orient yourself in space. Right and Left
19. Game - "What is What?"
20. Game Catch a fish
21. Association Game: Find a Pair
22. Game for the Development of Memory and Attention
23. Coloring Book for Children about Horses
24. Guess Whose Shadow
Development of Speech
Child aged 4 to 5 years must be able to:
1. The child must use a thousand words, build phrases from 6-8 words. Even strangers, and not just parents, should understand the child.
2. The child must understand how the structure of a person differs from the structure of animals, name their parts of the body (hands - paws, nails - claws, hair - wool).
3. The child must be able to correctly put nouns in the plural form (flower - flowers, girl - girls).
4. The child must be able to find an object according to the description (apple - round, sweet, yellow). Be able to independently write a description of the subject.
5. The child must understand the meaning of prepositions (in, on, under, behind, between, in front of, about, etc.).
6. The child must know what professions there are, what people in these professions do.
7. The child must be able to maintain a conversation: be able to answer questions and ask them correctly.
8. A child should be able to retell the content of a fairy tale or story he has heard. Tell by heart a few poems, nursery rhymes.
9. The child must give his name, surname, how old he is, name the city in which he lives.
10. The child should be able to answer questions about recent events: Where were you today? Who did you meet along the way? What did mom buy at the store? What were you wearing?
1. Letters of the Alphabet Puzzle
2. Studying the letter A. What the letter A looks like.
3. Learning vowels
4. Alphabet in the form of cards
5. How to teach a child to read by syllables
6. Learning to Read. Part 1
7. Learning to Read. Part 2
8. Learning to Read. Part 3
9. Colored Letters of the Alphabet
10. Unique Alphabet by Letters
11. Lotto learning Letters
12. Cards with Letters and a Picture
13. Pure sayings
14. Rhymes and Counts 194 15. Learning to read197 15. Playing Slogs Collect the Word from the Picture and Letters
17. Flashcards - What Letter does the Word Begin with
18. Collect the Word from the Picture and Letters. Didactic Game
The world around
A child aged 4 to 5 years should be able to:
1. The child should be able to distinguish between vegetables, fruits and berries, to know what they are when they ripen.
2. The child must know the names of insects, be able to talk about how they move (a butterfly flies, a snail crawls, a grasshopper jumps)
3. The child must know all domestic animals and their cubs.
4. The child should be able to guess the seasons from the pictures. Know the signs of each of them.
1. Body Parts Cards
2. Transportation Cards
3. Fruit Cards
4. Vegetable Cards
5. Color Learning Cards
6. 471 Furniture Cards
animals and what they eat"
8. "Clothes and Shoes" cards
9. Animals and Birds cards
10. Profession cards
11. Tree and Leaves structure
12. Season Autumn
13. Season Winter
14. Season Spring
15. Season Summer
16. Cards learning Colors
17. Winter month - December
18. Winter month - January
19. Winter month - February
20. Lessons on the theme of Winter
21. Fruits and berries. Learning and coloring
22. Vegetables. Learning and coloring
23. Fruits and Berries (coloring cards)
24. Vegetables (coloring cards)
25. Spring month - March
26. Spring month - April
A child aged 4 to 5 should be able to:
1. The child already perfectly fastens buttons, zippers and unties shoelaces, a spoon and a fork obey him well.
2. The child must be able to string large buttons or beads onto a thread.
3. The child must be able to accurately draw lines without lifting the pencil from the paper.
4. The child should be able to shade figures with even straight lines, without going beyond the contours of the picture.
5. The child should be able to trace and color pictures without leaving the edges.
6. The child must be able to draw lines in the middle of the track without going beyond its edges.
7. The child must distinguish between the right and left hand.
1. Stencils for drawing
2. How to teach a child to tie shoelaces
3. Outline and color
4. Tic-tac-toe game in a new way
5. Signs and Properties of objects
6. Application Flowers
7. Getting to know the concepts: Right, left, top, bottom
8. Studying the Clock
9. Book My Home
10. Parts of the Human Body
11. Recipe for Lefties
12. Game Catch a Fish
13. Bus for Little Ponies
14. Game - all Professions
15. My Home. Components of a house.
16. Plasticine and beads
17. Board game Tell me about your city
18. Children's Rhymes
19. Colored Cardboard Caterpillar
20. Learning Colors with Ice Cream
21. DIY Button Applications
22. Christmas Tree Cones
23. Cheerful Chupa-Chups
24. Learning Days of the Week
25. How to teach a child to jump rope
26. How to teach a child to clean his room
Use parent and teacher guides designed to teach English to children aged 4 to 5 in class.
1. English Letter Puzzle
2. Cards with letters of the English alphabet
3. Card numbers in English
4. Cards Fruits and Berries
5. Cards with English words. Part 1
6. Cards with English words. Part 2
7. Furniture cards in English
8. Household appliances cards
9. Clothing cards
10. Vegetable cards in English
11. Months cards in English
12. Transportation cards in English
13. Big puzzles and Small letters of the English alphabet
Read also the article for Parents What you need to know about Child Development.
Find out what a child should know and be able to do by age. Take advantage of the training aids offered by our website.
Child development calendar up to 1 year (by months)
Child from 1 to 2 years old
Child from 2 to 3 years old
Child from 3 to 4 years old
Child from 5 to 7 years old
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