Developmental spelling stages chart

The Stages of Spelling Development

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If you’re new, welcome to This Reading Mama! I’m joining 39 other bloggers with iHomeschool Network as we post for 10 days on various topics.  I am exploring a series called Teaching Spelling Through Word Study.  And if you’re just joining me, you’ve only missed one day. Yesterday, we explored the difference between traditional spelling and word study.  {You can click here or on the image above to view that post.}

Understanding the Stages of Spelling Development

Understanding spelling development is key with word study because, unlike traditional spelling, word study seeks to teach students at their own level of development (also known as their instructional level). And how do we know a child’s level or stage of spelling development? As children progress through different spelling development stages, they naturally exhibit certain characteristics.

Today, I want to identify the spelling stages with examples from each; but I won’t leave you hanging there.  In the next couple of days, we’re going to explore how to identify your child’s stage and what to do with this information.

Stage 1: Emergent Spelling Stage (Let’s Learn Our ABC’s)

At the beginning, they “spell” haphazardly with marks (such as scribbles) all over the paper.  Their drawings and writing are indistinguishable.

MBug (2 years old) is in the beginning stages of Emergent.  While she knows her letters (not sounds, yet), this is how she “writes”.  Sometimes, she’ll even “read” me her writing.  So cute!

As these spellers progress, real letters and numbers may be used, but the speller does not understand that letters represent sounds in words, so house may be spelled A1XT.  They prefer uppercase and do not put space in between words.  And they begin to write from left to right.

Towards the end of this stage, spellers begin to match letters to sounds in words, so a word such as ball may be spelled with just the letter B, or G for alligator.

NJoy (just turned 4) is at the end of the Emergent stage, which can be seen with his spelling of “I love you”. To read more about this stage, you can click here.

Stage 2: Letter Name-Alphabetic Spelling Stage (I know my ABC’s)

At the beginning of this stage, spellers match written letters to letter sounds more consistently, but very few vowels are used.  For example, wall might be spelled WLand heart spelled HT.  Space becomes more regular, but still lacking.

As they progress, sometimes vowels are added in the middle of words, so bell may be spelled BAL and boat may be BOT (long vowels are easiest to hear)

Towards the end, spellers begin to spell most short-vowel patterns (CVC) correctly as well as blends and digraphs.  High frequency words are spelled correctly.  Long vowel patterns aren’t in place yet (PLAT for plate)

Here is an example of ALuv in this stage: “I had a bulldozer that went in the sandbox. ” To read more about this stage, click here.

Stage 3: Within Word Pattern Spelling Stage (Looking for Patterns)

In the beginning of this stage, spellers are comfortable spelling short vowel words, blends, and digraphs.

As they progress, they begin to spell r-influenced words correctly (words with ir, er, ur, and or)  They also learn how to spell most one-syllable long vowel words correctly, but will sometimes confuse them (WATE for wait).

Here is one of ALuv’s (currently 7 years old) most recent journal samples.  He is smack dab in the middle of this stage right now.

Towards the end, spellers can spell other kinds of vowel patterns (like the oi in  toil or the ou in  pound).  As a matter of fact, spellers can spell most any regular one-syllable word (words like weight may still confuse them). To read more about this stage, click here.

Stage 4: The Syllables and Affixes Spelling Stage (Add on the Syllables)

  • can spell most one-syllable short, long, and ambiguous words correctly; but now it’s time to take what they know and apply it to longer words
  • confuse spellings where the syllables meet (such as when to double a letter before adding –ing or –ed)
  • tend to misspell unaccented syllables, spelling INVUTATION for invitation or CONFUDINT for confident
  • also misspell some prefixes and suffixes (such as PER- for pre– or –SION for –tion)

Stage 5: Derivational Relations Spelling Stage (Building Vocabulary)

  •  spell most common words correctly, but can confuse patterns such as:
  • unaccented syllable spellings (schwa)
  • silent consonants (EMFASIZE for emphasize)
  • some suffixes and prefixes (MISPELL for misspell)
  • “borrowed” word spellings
  • To read more about stages 4-5, click here.


Can you, from the information above, identify your child’s level of spelling development…or at least make an educated guess?  If you’re still not quite sure, over the next couple of days I hope to give you a few more tools for your word study toolbox. 🙂


More Spelling Development Resources:

  • My new ebook, Teaching Kids to Spell , is based on teaching in a developmentally appropriate way. In it, you’ll find ideas for identifying your child’s spelling development stage as well as strategies to teach in each stage. The appendix is also full of printables you can print off and use with your child as you teach him to spell!
  • 10 Days of Teaching Spelling Through Word Study {You’ve just read day 2 of this series.}
  • Words Their Way: Word Study for Phonics, Vocabulary and Spelling Instruction
  • Using Words Their Way to Teach Spelling
  • Stages of Spelling Development




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Developmental Spelling Stages: What They Are and How It Can Help Us!

Let’s talk spelling for a bit…. .did you know that there are developmental spelling stages just like there are with speech, language, growth, reading etc.?

Have you ever wondered if your child’s spelling errors are developmentally appropriate or if they are behind or maybe even advanced? Just like learning to read, learning to spell is a gradual process that is cumulative and builds on knowledge over time.

Charles Read, an educational researcher in the 1970’s, discovered that preschoolers attempts at writing were not random or haphazardly made up as they went, but rather their spellings had a systematic, phonetic logical or pattern to it. Other reading researchers began to study similar logic in students spellings across grade levels and discovered certain developmental stages. Longitudinal and cross-grade level studies have shown that “this developmental progression occurs for ALL learners of written English in the same direction and varies only in rate of acquisition [speed at which they progress through the stages]. ” (Invernizzi & Hayes, 2004). Adult learners progress through the same stages as a preschooler starting out although likely at a faster rate.

Developmental Spelling Stages

Emergent Stage: Most toddlers, preschoolers, and beginning of the year kindergartners fall into this stage but anyone who is not yet reading conventionally probably falls into this stage. In this stage, students writing begins as scribbles or simple pictures and gradually begins to make marks that look like letters but there is no relationship between the letter written and it’s sound.

Letter Name Alphabetic Stage: Children are generally in this stage when they are beginning to learn to read (kindergarten through about the middle of 2nd grade). Children in this stage often use letter names to represent speech sounds such as using R U to communicate “are you.” There is rapid growth in this stage with the beginning phases looking like spelling with the first and last sound of a word (RN for run) and often there are no spaces between words. As they progress, they can often spell many high frequency words, beginning and ending consonants, and use short vowels consistently even though sometimes they are “used but confused.” By the time they reach the end of this stage, they are using most regular short vowel sounds correctly, digraphs, and consonant blends. Long vowel patterns are beginning to be used but often incorrectly by the end of this stage.

Within Word Pattern Stage: This stage usually correlates to when students are able to independently read- towards the end of first grade and beginning of second grade. This spelling stage lasts for a longer time than all previous ones because of the amount of skills needed to be learned. This stage is more abstract as spellers begin to include patterns and chunks of letter sequences. Students in this stage spell short vowel and some long vowel patterns correctly. In this stage, students study common and less common long vowel patterns.

Syllables and Affixes Stage: This stage usually occurs in upper elementary school and middle school grades and encompasses spelling more difficult words with more than one syllable. Students work on spelling patterns where syllables meet and with meaning chunks such as prefixes and suffixes.

Derivational Relations Stage: This is the last stage of developmental spelling, these spellers are most often found in middle school. high school, and college and continues throughout adulthood! This stage is all about studying related base and root words. Students learn that the meaning and spelling of parts of words include consistent patterns across related words that can be studied and learned. Student errors in spelling deal with absorbed prefixes such as when to double letters and schwa sounds.

Why is it important to know and understand these developmental spelling stages?

Students’ attempts at spelling can provide a powerful prediction of reading achievement. Looking at your child’s spelling can give you a window into their reading and spelling development. One of the easiest ways to see what a child needs to learn is to look at the way that they spell…. cue the chart above! Their spellings are a insiders look into their knowledge of how our spelling system works. “Morris and Perney found that first graders invented spellings were a better predictor of end-of-grade reading than a standardized reading readiness test. Ellis and Cataldo reported spelling to be the most consistent predictor of reading achievement” (Bear, D. R., Invernizzi, M., & Johnston, F. R. (2008). Reading, writing, and spelling are reciprocal processes meaning instruction in one will help or benefit the other.

Take Aways For Parents…How Does This Knowledge Help you?

1. It can help you understand what they should and should not know how to spell based on their development.

2. It can help you understand what mistakes to have them correct when writing and which ones are developmentally appropriate for them to be spelling incorrectly. Sometimes correcting everything is too overwhelming for a child. With this knowledge you can have them correct just a few words that correlate with their current stage of spelling development.

3. It can help you know exactly what skills your child needs some extra practice with. If they are spelling incorrectly every single word with a silent e, then BINGO! You know what you need to practice.

4. By working on spelling patterns that they are confusing, you are also improving their reading/decoding skills.

What Can You Do To Practice

I love the Words Their Way program. It follows these developmental stages and helps students discover sounds, spelling patterns, and meaning through word sorting. Through this process, they compare and contrast words and patterns and students discover the relationships between words as opposed to just being “told” spelling patterns and rules.

If you are interested, The Words Their Way textbook goes into more depth about each of the things I’ve talked about. It is available at many libraries as well! There are also workbooks for each developmental spelling stage that contain words sorts for your student that are ready for you to copy and use! There is one for each stage including: Emergent, Letter Name Alphabetic, Within Word Pattern, Syllables & Affixes, and Derivational Relations.

These workbooks are a great resource for parents and teachers and walk you through how to use them! Look for a post coming soon with more details about how to practice with word sorts!

What questions do you have? What do you want to know more about?


Bear, D. R., Invernizzi, M., & Johnston, F. R. (2008). Words their way. Parsippanny, NJ: Celebration Press.

If you enjoyed this post about Developmental Spelling Stages, you may also enjoy these posts:

  • Oral Reading Fluency Rates
  • Speech and Language Resources
  • What Is Invented Spelling And Why Kids Need To Use It

Conclusion. The main stages in the development of Russian spelling

The main stages in the development of Russian spelling


The following tasks were set and solved in our work:

1) The history of graphics was studied.

Modern Russian graphics represent a slightly modified graphics of the Old Slavonic language, the so-called Cyrillic alphabet.

From the 10th century Old Slavonic graphics began to be used in Russia when rewriting already existing books and when creating original works of writing. The theory of writing and spelling rules did not exist at that time. Scribes who practically mastered the art of writing were mostly copyists of finished manuscripts. This does not mean that the Old Russian scribes mechanically used the methods of the Old Church Slavonic language. Preserving the techniques of Old Slavonic graphics in Russian writing (in particular, the letters of nasal vowels that did not exist in Russian), Russian scribes adapted it to Russian pronunciation.

In the XII-XIII centuries. Russian writing is increasingly freed from Old Slavonic influence and is gradually turning into an independent system that brings writing closer to living speech.

The development of Russian writing was somewhat delayed by the influence of South Slavic writing, which began at the end of the 16th century, when South Slavic liturgical books appeared in Russia, corrected in accordance with the Greek originals. The graphics and spelling of these books imparted a certain artificiality to Russian writing, depriving it of its independence and connection with the living language.

Printing, which arose in Russia in the 16th century, played a positive role in establishing a uniform writing system. Printed matter becomes a model for all writers. Until the 16th century Russian scribes wrote one word after another without gaps between them. Separate spelling of words is associated with the development of printing.

At the turn of the first half of the XVIII century. questions of graphics and spelling receive a fundamental formulation. They are associated with the issues of the Russian literary language and acquire social significance.

At the beginning of the 20th century. ever broader public tasks of spelling reform are being identified, and the leadership in solving spelling issues is carried out by the Academy of Sciences.

2) Researched the reform of 1917-1918.

The spelling reform of 1917-1918 consisted in changing a number of rules of Russian spelling, which was most noticeable in the form of the exclusion of several letters from the composition of the Russian alphabet.

The reform reduced the number of spelling rules that had no support in pronunciation. The reform resulted in some savings in writing and typesetting. The reform eliminated pairs of completely homophonic graphemes from the Russian alphabet, bringing the alphabet closer to the real phonological system of the Russian language.

Spelling reform 1917-1918 significantly simplified and facilitated our writing, but did not touch upon many private issues of spelling, which served as a source of discord in the practice of writing. This undermined the general spelling system and caused many difficulties in the work of publishing houses, as well as in school teaching.

3) Considered the reform of Russian spelling in the light of the theory of principles of writing.

The vast majority of linguists and teachers supported the idea that the reform is an undoubted progress and it will lead to simplification and, consequently, to easier spelling.

In the course of spelling discussions at the beginning of the last century, the overwhelming majority of linguists pointed to the inconsistent nature of Russian writing and therefore came out in favor of reforming and simplifying the Russian spelling system. Three principles: historical (traditional), etymological (morphological) and phonetic - were at the center of the discussion of linguists, but there was no consensus on the definition of the leading principle, this issue remained debatable.

Thus, the purpose of the study has been achieved - we have outlined the main stages in the development of Russian spelling.

1. Periodic adjustment of the rules is natural and quite natural, as it meets the needs of the developing language and the practice of its coverage.

2. Despite the fact that the reform was developed long before the revolution without any political goals by professional linguists, the first steps towards its practical implementation took place after the revolution, and it was actually accepted and implemented by the Bolsheviks.

3. The beginning of the 20th century in Russia is one of the most important stages in the preparation and implementation of the reform of Russian writing, therefore the study of theoretical works of this period is of particular importance, since these works are a source of important linguistic and historical information that reflected changes in Russian spelling .


1. Baudouin de Courtenay I.A. On the relation of Russian writing to the Russian language / Prof. I.A. Baudouin de Courtenay. - St. Petersburg: Ed. magazine "School Renewal", 1912. - 132 p.

2. Brandt R.F. On the pseudo-scientific nature of our spelling (public lecture) // Philological Notes. Voronezh, 1901. Issue 1-2. pp. 1-50.

3. Budilovich A.S. Academy of Sciences and reform of Russian spelling / A.S. Budilovich. - St. Petersburg: Tipo-lit. V.V. Komarova, 1904. - 43 p.

4. Zhitomirsky K.G. Moloch of the XX century: (Spelling) / K.G. Zhytomyr. - Moscow: Trud, 1915. - 258 p.

5. Ivanova V.F. Modern Russian Literature. - M.: Russian language, 1991 - 84 p.

6. Ivanov V. I. Our language // From the depths. Collection of articles about the Russian revolution. Moscow-Petrograd: "Russian Thought", 1918

7. Ilyin I.A. On Russian spelling // Prof. I. A. Ilyin, "Our tasks". T. 2. Paris, 1956. - 437 p.

8. Kuzmina S. M. Theory of Russian spelling. Orthography in its relation to phonetics and phonology. M., 1981.

9. Kulman N.K. Methodology of the Russian language. - Petrograd, 1917.

10. Panov M.V. And yet she is good. A story about Russian spelling, its advantages and disadvantages. M., 1964.

11. Panov M.V. Interesting spelling. M., 1984.

12. Panov M.V. Review of proposals for the improvement of Russian spelling. M., 1965.

13. Minutes of the first meeting of the Commission on Russian Spelling, held on April 12, 1904. St. Petersburg, 1905. - 67 p.

Development of students' spelling vigilance in Russian language lessons. Linguistic and psychological foundations of spelling


1. The concept of spelling, its main sections, spelling properties and methodological conclusions.

2. Morphological character of our orthography (the main principle of Russian spelling: morphological or phonemic-morphological) and methodological principle derived from it analogies and contrasts.

3. Psychological foundations for mastering spelling.

Spelling -

1. Historical system uniform spellings, which is accepted and society uses.

2. A rule ensuring uniformity in those cases where the spelling is different.

3. This is part of the science of language in its written form studying the written and establishing uniform spelling.

Spelling is divided into sections:

  1. Designation of sounds by letters in the composition of words and morphemes.
  2. Merged, semi-merged and separate spellings.
  3. Use of uppercase and lowercase letters.
  4. Word hyphenation rules.
  5. Rules for graphic abbreviation of words.

Spelling rules depend on basic graphics and alphabet composition ь and ъ ,

Spelling properties:

  1. Spelling is determined by the laws of the language.
  2. Consistency spelling - (set relationship of rules).
  3. Conventional (so it is customary to write).
  4. Pairing of most spellings. Availability mutual orthograms.

From these properties of Russian spelling follow conclusions:

1. Spelling should be studied on the basis of phonetics and grammar.

There are a minimum of phonetic and grammatical spelling skills:

  1. Sound-letter analysis;
  2. Finding stress;
  3. Morphemic composition of the word;
  4. Determine the way of word formation;
  5. Knowledge of adverbs and their grammatical features;
  6. Ability to establish connections between words.

2. After studying the individual rules, you should show their interrelation, system;

3. You have to memorize a lot in spelling, because a lot of conditional.

4. Comparisons need to be made mixed spellings.

5. Since spelling is a speech skill, insofar as work on spelling should not be isolated, but connected with the development of speech.

For the main education section, the designation sounds the leading principle of spelling is morphological or phonemic-morphological, those. uniform spelling of morphemes with checking in a strong position.

Red flag

red ribbon

walked along the street

along the line

¬ ¬ ¬
Pass distribute cleaned watched
morph phonetic nonmorph morph. morph

From this follows the literary principle of analogy:

Related morphemes must be written in the same way.

Under the oak, under the table, but this analogy leads to opposition.

In the village, but in the village (V.p. pl.) For water, but for water (pl.) Prepare, but prepare.

The following rule should be given in elementary grades:

Write by analogy, because related words are written and forms.

Spelling instruction must not be separated from logical thinking. Not a single spelling work without the work of thought.

Skill is of great importance in spelling.

Skills - automated components conscious activity developed in the process of her upbringing.

The spelling skill is very difficult, and then the action is completed.

To develop a skill, you need to put the child before such a goal that spelling is combined with r.r.

Spelling education should be based on theory of the gradual formation of mental student actions.

1) Preparatory stage. This creation problematic situations, arousing interest.

2) Indicative is the creation of materialism orientation of the main actions (algorithm).

3) The stage of materialized action.

4) Loud speech stage.

5) Speech to himself.

6) Mental stage - automation.

Development of spelling vigilance

Spelling vigilance - the ability to detect spelling. Orthograms convey letters that are in in a weak position, but can also be in a strong one. Higher the degree of development of spelling vigilance - ability to recognize spelling, therefore, match them with the correct ones.

How many spellings do students discover? Usually with visual perception no more than 40%. development spelling vigilance contributes to the technique "Checking myself."

If you systematically check the method “I check myself”, then development increases vigilance up to 70% -90%. Spelling vigilance is formed faster and can reach 100% if the student is given theoretical concepts (spelling. ) It is useful to give the concept of weak and strong position.

In an experimental study by Jedek and Renk the concept of spelling is given in the first grade and the beginning of the exercises and is called “letter with holes."

In ordinary teaching, the concept of spelling at the beginning year in the 5th grade, a concept should be given, and when the study of phonetics to deepen the concept of weak and strong position for vowel and consonant.

And you should also carry out proofreading graphic texts.

To check spelling, you need to choose the same a word related to the same root in which the desired sound is in a strong position.

sections of Russian spelling and introduced symbol.

To spell correctly, you need determine:

1. Does the spelling convey the sound of a weak position?


Razumovsky outlines the main system exercises.

1. Ability to visually detect spelling perceived text without skipping letters.

2. Ability to detect spelling by ear.

3. Ability to write down text with a gap questionable spellings.

First, we look for the spelling in the root, vowel, then I agree, that's all.

The spelling is underlined and denoted by .

Task: underline spelling, vowel in .

Sad time! Eye charm.

Your parting beauty is pleasant to me.

Or with omitted spellings and den...h...right.

Each type of spelling has its own identifying signs. Now there are alphabetic and non-letter spellings.

Orthograms of vowel letters or signs.

1. Unstressed vowels; drums after hissing and c; unstressed vowels after hissing and c - double spelling. Example: circus, wide.

2. Voiceless and voiced consonants at the end of words and before a consonant, unpronounceable doubles.

3. - and - combination of any consonant with [j].

4. Together, separately, with a hyphen.

5. Capital letters.

6. Word hyphenation.

Paired for deafness, sonority of hissing - double spelling.

Working on spelling rules.

1. The system in the study of rules.

2. Attention to identifying features spelling.

3. Entertaining. Step by step processing.

4. Accounting for variants of difficulties.

Spelling analysis. Its place, views, experience leading teachers.

Each new rule is assigned to sections spellings, correlate with groups of spellings, with morpheme, with the basic principle of Russian spelling.

Particular rule to be given immediately as part of common (spelling ь after sizzling).

When we start to get acquainted with the new rule, we start with identification signs.

Spelling rule z – s v ¬.

Tasteless - Silent .

Identification sign of orthograms - confluence consonant cognitive signs.

Workers sawing, chopping firewood.

Write down everyone who does not come. Here the elements entertainment.

At the lessons of studying the spelling rule refer to the textbook. We select the norm compose an algorithm and be sure to analyze letter sample.


wake up; remove;

struggle - fight

Sometimes a more detailed entry is required.

Next, we train according to the algorithm.

1. Letter with missing spelling.


2. We select related words.

Live, life

3. The root is highlighted.

4. Determine the beginning of the consonant root, letter is entered.

5. Check and pointer.

It is important that the material covers all difficulties and methods of work.

Variant difficulties.

I Variant. Pronunciation saves actually the morphemic composition of the word and basically matches spelling

Break - drink (we hear and write)

II Variant. Two identical consonants merge and in pronunciation pomorphically.

Spread, starless

III Variant. Root starts with hissing, assimilation of consonants occurs. The pronunciation does not match the spelling.

Pity, countless.

Spelling analysis - spelling explanation

Types of spelling:

1. According to the method of execution.

2. According to the time of explanation (preliminary, subsequent).

3. By completeness (thematic, complete, selective).

4. By perception (by ear, visually).

5. According to the linguistic material (individual words, words. sentences, text analysis).

Difficult spelling cases

1. Testing experience as a final repetitions for the most difficult generalized spelling rules.

2. Unstressed vowels in ¬ (checked percussion, difficult to check, alternation, unverifiable)

3. Unpronounceable consonants in root and suffixes.

4. Unstressed vowels in particles not and neither.

5. Study of doubled consonants ( n, nn ).

6. Continuous - hyphenated - separate spelling.

  1. Part of speech recognition.
  2. o, e, e after hissing and c .
  3. I and ь in the endings of verbs and nouns.
  4. A root with an unstressed vowel.
  5. H , nn in all parts of speech

Vlasenkov points out that in order to learn the rules for unchecked vowels, you need to perform more than 12 exercises.

“Learning the spelling of unstressed vowels in the root of the word must be built on knowledge phonetic, morphological features the words".

Hearing development is also necessary, development morphological analysis skills and development students' vocabulary.

1 gr. 2-3 word words with clear for learners semantics is checked by changing the form

Wear - wear, grass - herbs.

Or related words equal to the root.

Green - greens, feed - feed

2 gr. Words - homophones or words with a root - homophones

Developed - fluttering Old-timer - dogged

They must be taken in context.

3 gr. Unstressed after hissing and c. (rosehip, whisper, six, chain, workshop).

4 gr. Difficult - checked words.

A) from consonants (to absorb, surprise, irrigation.)

B) with semantics not quite clear for children rebuttal.

C) words with difficult selection test and with a darkened composition.

Chat - chat, disappointment; renegade - a sliver. Teacher, bless.

D) represent the difficulty of the word with vowels, for which special rules are not studied

Say sees; Being late is too late.

E) verification is difficult due to the dialect pronunciation.

Conclusion: The more words in a phrase, the more complex it is in composition, the less clear value, the more difficult the verification.

It is necessary to introduce the guys to phonetic sound alternation

House - house - brownie

Five - nickel - piglet

[a] [and] [and]

Pupils should know what sounds should denoted by the letter

The number of morphemes often does not match the number of syllables.

Example: teacher

Selection of words according to schemes.

For those vowel alternations the rule is the spelling of which is not studied at school do a shock check!

Zabl e stele

Many unverifiable vowels can be made verifiable .

Brigadier - brigade commander - brigade. Ship - battleship - spec. Tape recorder, supply;

“Lotto on the root of words” include also the root with check.

The root is not checked, the teacher chooses words, scatters them on the card; but with the root bir - ber ...

When studying unpronounceable consonants, do not draw conflicting words on the first couple.

Another difficulty in spelling in rhetorical questions. They may be in positive and the answer is negative. Example:

Isn't it a shame? It's a shame.

Rhetorical questions do not require an answer, but do not exclude him. Answer to a rhetorical question can be of three types:

1. Directly negative treated than not podcheval! There was only a bird milk).

2. Positive response, indicates difficulty finding a negative fact. (Who is not now knows in our country about Yartarka, such a person now a rarity).

3. Summarized - approve the answer. (What does he have now No? - All)

All doubled consonants are decomposed into 3 gr.

Adjectives are difficult end in and : blue, green, drunk.

Difficulty writing in : Monkey, deer, badger

Symbols are useful for learning spelling schemes without specific lexical meanings for example; 120 6-7 cells.

Particularly difficult cases:

1. Prefixes in adverbs;

2. Various parts no and prefix no .

3. Spelling of compound words.

  1. Prefix in adverbs is difficult to write, because the prefix in adverbs is written separately, for example: in an embrace, tirelessly, to failure, for border, in mockery, on the fly, with a running start.

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