Mathematics in kindergarten
Math Skills for Kindergarten, What Your Child Will Learn, Komodo Math
- Math Tips
As your child heads into kindergarten, you’ll be feeling all sorts of emotions. You may be wondering: How can my baby be that old? Is she ready? What exactly is he going to learn in kindergarten?
While kindergarten may have changed since you were a child, it still forms the foundation of your child’s schooling and we wrote earlier about how to prepare for a successful start to the school adventure.
In math, students will learn the basics of how numbers work while exploring place value and the concepts of addition and subtraction.
But there’s no need to figure everything out as your child does - this article will help you get a head start by knowing what to expect.
In kindergarten your child will learn how to:
1.Count to 100
Going into the school year, your child may be able to orally count to 10 or beyond. By the end of kindergarten, expect that counting to advance to 100. But don’t worry, we’re only talking about counting orally. Your kindergartner will not be expected to write all the numbers to 100.
In most kindergarten classrooms, teachers count the days of school with the children. By counting each day, children gradually become more fluent with bigger and bigger numbers. At the end of 100 days, kindergarten classrooms often have a big celebration with many more opportunities for counting.
At home: To support your child’s counting skills, encourage your kindergartner to count as high as possible. This is a great task to give your child in the car - or even at bedtime!
2. Answer “how many?” questions about groups of objects
As well as counting to 100, kindergartners will be asked to count how many objects are in a group. Students need to be able to physically count objects one at a time, assigning one number to each object as they count. This is a skill called one-to-one correspondence.
At home: Ask children to tell you how many toys they are playing with and watch how they keep track of each object that is counted. If your kindergartner counts the same object twice or skips an object, encourage another try.
3. Solve basic addition and subtraction problems
In kindergarten, children start to develop an understanding of addition and subtraction within 10. Kindergartners start by solving problems involving physical objects, and as the year goes on, students learn to draw pictures to represent addition and subtraction problems. They will even begin to solve simple word problems.
At home: Present two groups of blocks (less than 10 in all) and have your child add the blocks together. As your child develops understanding, you can ask simple addition or subtraction problems without using the physical objects as a support.
4. Understand the numbers 11-19 as a ten plus some ones
Though it may seem quite advanced, your kindergartner will begin to understand the concept of place value and that position makes some numbers bigger than others - ie get to grips with the idea that 21 is bigger than 12. Students may use place value blocks to be able to “see” how ten ones become a ten.
At home: When counting blocks or lego bricks at home, make a group of ten. Then add on extra “ones” to make the numbers 11-19. You can even talk about place value when looking at written two-digit numbers.
5. Name shapes
Kindergartners will learn about 2D and 3D shapes. They should be able to name different shapes while describing their features. Kindergartners love to recognize shapes in the real world!
At home: Help your child by having them spot squares, cubes, spheres, rectangles, etc. Challenge your kindergartener to draw pictures using basic 2D shapes, then talk to you about the drawings. Making and continuing shape patterns is another fun way to help engage your kindergartner as they learn about shapes.
Throughout the year, make sure to ask your child about what’s happening in kindergarten math. Give your child an opportunity to teach you by sharing what he or she has learned. Get ready for a fun year in kindergarten!
Found this useful? Check out our grade by grade math guides from Kindergarten to 5th grade
Written by Lily Jones, Lily loves all things learning. She has been a kindergarten & first grade teacher, instructional coach, curriculum developer, and teacher trainer. She loves to look at the world with curiosity and inspire people of all ages to love learning. She lives in California with her husband, two kids, and a little dog.
About Komodo – Komodo is a fun and effective way to boost K-5 math skills. Designed for 5 to 11-year-olds to use in the home, Komodo uses a little and often approach to learning math (15 minutes, three to five times per week) that fits into the busy family routine. Komodo helps users develop fluency and confidence in math – without keeping them at the screen for long.
Find out more about Komodo and how it helps thousands of children each year do better at maths – you can even try Komodo for free.
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What to Expect in Kindergarten Math
It's hard to believe that your baby is growing up and doing mathematics! Math is a big part of your child’s day in kindergarten. Your child will be exploring, experimenting, counting, sorting, and explaining. Young children often have trouble with symbolic concepts. For this reason, the early childhood classroom uses manipulatives. A manipulative is anything that your child can count or handle that helps him or her learn a concept. Typical math manipulatives found in the classroom include cubes, dice pattern blocks, clocks, and puzzles. For example, when someone says “three,” adults have no trouble visualizing three objects and the numeral 3, but it’s not as simple for children. By having something concrete like a manipulative to work with, child eventually bridge the gap between the physical world and the world of symbols and abstract concepts.
Here's how it might work. A child learning basic addition facts may start by using manipulatives to help him or her solve the problem. If the problem is 5 + 3, your child may make one group of five cubes and one group of three cubes. To find the sum, he or she will then put the groups together and count the total. By using manipulatives, your child will begin to understand that addition is putting groups together. The cubes serve as a bridge to the symbolic 5 + 3 = 8. Number sense is very important for success in math. It's a set of math skills that describes your child's understanding that numbers represent quantity or "how many". Children who develop number sense understand the order in math. They see the relationships that numbers have to one another; they understand how numbers are put together and taken apart; and they have an intuitive sense about our number system. Working with patterns is another very important concept in mathematics. In kindergarten, your child will be working with patterns by sorting and grouping objects into sets and by explaining and extending simple patterns. Learning to recognize and extend patterns is a skill that will have many applications beyond the mathematics classroom. Here’s what your child should be able to do before starting kindergarten math:
- Count to ten
- Count a set of five objects using one-to-one correspondence
- Identify the numerals 1-5
- Compare sets of objects and describe them using “more,” “less,” “equal,” or same
- Use correct vocabulary to compare objects (“big,” “small”; “long,” “short”; “more,” “less”; “heavy,” “light”)
- Use words that identify time of day (“morning,” “afternoon,” “night,” “day”)
- Identify circles, squares, rectangles, and triangles when shown models
- Sort objects by their attributes (color, size, shape, and so on)
- Use words that indicate position (“in,” “out,” “beside,” “over,” “under,” “between”)
- Recognize and copy patterns in songs, rhymes, and body movements
By the end of kindergarten, students working at the standard level:
- Understand that numbers are symbols that tell you how many
- Know about time and can tell time to the nearest hour
- Recite numbers one through twenty corresponding to flash cards
- Combine and separate sets using objects
- Classify and sort sets
- Solve addition facts through 10
- Compare more, less, and same
- Recognize half of a whole object
Interactive resources are available on our kindergarten math games page, and other materials are available on our math resources page.
Adapted with permission from "Kindergarten Success: Everything You Need to Know to Help Your Child Learn" by Amy James (Jossey- Bass, 2005), which we highly recommend.
Next Article: Development of Cognitive Structures Related to Mathematics
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0004 Mathematics education at the preschool educational institution.
Modern approaches to the formation of the foundations of the mathematical culture of preschoolers.
Children's entry into the world of mathematics begins already in preschool childhood. Mathematics is a universal method of cognition of the surrounding and objective world, and its role in modern science is constantly growing. Changes in conceptual approaches to determining the content and choice of methods for teaching mathematics at school, the widespread use of modern educational technologies have also determined the requirements for the mathematical preparation of preschool children.
Today "mathematics is more than a science, it is a language". The study of mathematics improves the culture of thinking, teaches children to reason logically, educates them in the accuracy of their statements. Mathematical knowledge and skills are necessary for the successful adaptation of the child to the processes of social communication, informatization and technologization of society. They broaden the horizons of the child. Mathematical culture is an integral part of the general culture of the individual, and in the period of preschool childhood it has its own characteristics associated with the age and individual capabilities of children.
Traditionally, there are four lines in the content of mathematical education for preschoolers: arithmetic, algebraic, geometric and magnitude. Today, taking into account the renewal of the content of preschool education, a fifth content line is added - algorithmic (schemes, models, algorithms). The use of information in a symbolized form contributes to the development of the ability to act mentally, develops logical and creative thinking, and imagination.
The adoption of the Federal State Educational Standard of preschool education will require the need to provide, as a prerequisite, the possibility of self-realization of the child at all stages of work on mathematical development in the preschool education system.
Mathematical material should be revealed during excursions, acquaintance with literary works and small forms of folklore, games with natural material (water, sand, beans, peas, cereals), through game exercises with sensory standards, household items, constructive and didactic games , in problem situations.All these forms vary according to age.
During their stay in kindergarten, a graduate must learn to apply mathematical knowledge and ideas in practical activities that are significant for him: play, children's experimentation, design, work, art and visual.
And as a result of self-realization, the child will develop learning motivation. Thus, the priority tasks of continuous education of children will be solved.
The concept of mathematical education in the Russian Federation
The importance of mathematical education is evidenced by the adoption of the Concept for the Development of Mathematical Education in the Russian Federation (December 24, 2013 (No. 2506 - p)), which is a system of views on the basic principles, goals, tasks and main directions of development of mathematical education in the Russian Federation.
Goals of the Concept:
to bring Russian mathematical education to a leading position in the world.
Mathematics in Russia should become an advanced and attractive field of knowledge and activity, the acquisition of mathematical knowledge should be a conscious and internally motivated process
Modernization of the content of curricula for mathematical education at all levels (with ensuring their continuity) based on the needs of students and the needs of society in general mathematical literacy, in specialists of various profiles and levels of mathematical training, in high achievements in science and practice;
Ensuring that there are no gaps in basic knowledge for each student, forming among the participants of educational relations the attitude “there are no children incapable of mathematics”, ensuring confidence in an honest and adequate state final certification, providing teachers with diagnostic tools (including automated ones) and overcoming individual difficulties;
Ensuring the availability of publicly available information resources necessary for the implementation of curricula of mathematical education, including in electronic format, tools for the activities of students and teachers, the use of modern technologies in the educational process;
Improving the quality of the work of mathematics teachers (from pedagogical workers of general education organizations to scientific and pedagogical workers of educational institutions of higher education), strengthening the mechanisms for their material and social support, providing them with the opportunity to refer to the best examples of Russian and world mathematical education, the achievements of pedagogical science and modern educational technologies, the creation and implementation of their own pedagogical approaches and copyright programs;
Support for leaders in mathematics education (organizations and individual teachers and scientists, as well as structures formed around leaders), identifying new active leaders;
Providing highly motivated students with outstanding mathematical abilities with all the conditions for the development and application of these abilities;
Popularization of mathematical knowledge and mathematical education.
Basic provisions for the implementation of the concept
Every citizen of Russia, regardless of age, has the right to free mathematical education, taking into account his professional orientation and individual intellectual needs. The system of mathematical education provides equal starting opportunities and takes into account the already achieved level at each stage.
Mathematics education is carried out in educational institutions of preschool, basic, vocational and additional education, higher educational institutions, in the family, in the form of self-education, as well as in the form of public educational associations. Responsibility for the results of mathematical education of a citizen of the Russian Federation is jointly borne by the state, parents and the citizen himself.
The main customer of mass general mathematical education is society. The state forms this order at all levels, based on the needs of industry and business, the country's research base, healthcare, public administration and education institutions, and provides support, including funding for this order.