Spelling words the way they sound

Phonological Awareness | Reading Rockets

Who can understand all the jargon that's being tossed around in education these days? Why is there a word for everything, and why do they have to be so confusing? Consider all the similar terms that have to do with the sounds of spoken words — phonics, phonetic spelling, phoneme awareness, phonological awareness, and phonology. All of the words share the same "phon" root, so they are easy to confuse, but they are definitely different, and each, in its way, is very important in reading education.


Thanks to the popular "Hooked on Phonics" television commercials everybody has heard of phonics, but not everybody knows what it is. Phonics is a method of teaching that emphasizes letter-sound relationships. Children are taught, for example, that the letter N represents the sound /n/, and that it is the first letter in words such as nose, nice and new.

In addition, and this is something that most people don't think about when they think of phonics, children are explicitly taught the English spelling–sound "rules. " Children are taught things like "when two vowels go walkin' the first does the talkin'" and "when a word ends in a silent-e, the first vowel sound is long." Since no letter in English, except for the letter V consistently corresponds to a single sound, these rules are quite complex. Nose, nice, and new all start with the letter N, but gnu, knife, and pneumonia certainly do not. There are spelling and pronunciation rules, and then there are exceptions to the rules, and teachers who use the phonics approach try to formally and explicitly teach both.

For the purpose of discussion here, there are two important things to remember about phonics. First and foremost, phonics is an instructional strategy — a method of teaching children to read. Second, phonics has to do with teaching the relationships between the sounds in speech and the letters of the alphabet (both written and spoken). Typically, when somebody is talking about teaching children the "spelling–sound" relationships (or to use some of that psycho-babble ed-speak, the "grapho-phonemic" relationships), they are talking about teaching some form of phonics.

Phonetic spelling or reading

This is a concept which is related to phonics, but unlike phonics, which is a method of teaching reading, phonetic spelling or phonetic reading is a behavior that young readers exhibit when they are trying to write or read. When children spell words the way they sound, they are said to be phonetically spelling — for example, the word lion could be phonetically spelled L-Y-N, or the word move could be phonetically spelled M-U-V. Likewise, a child can phonetically read words — child phonetically reading the word two may say "twah", or the child may phonetically read the word laugh in such a way that it sounds like lag or log.


Unlike phonics or phonetic reading and writing, phonology has nothing to do with the letters in our alphabet or the letter names (spoken or written. Phonology has to do with the ability to distinguish and categorize sounds in speech. Some words in English (in all languages actually) sound very similar, and are easily confused if you are not very sensitive to the distinctions. For some children with phonology deficits, pairs of words like mauve and moth or rate and late sound identical. They can not hear the difference between certain similar phonemes (speech sounds), and as a consequence, they can not hear the difference between certain words.

Phonological awareness

Like phonology, phonological awareness has nothing to do with the letters in our alphabet — it has to do with the sounds in spoken words. And while phonology refers to the ability to hear the difference between sounds in spoken words, phonological awareness refers to the child's understanding that spoken words are made up of sounds.

This fact is obvious to adults, but children do not usually realize that, within a word, there may be other words (in the case of compound words), or that words are made up of syllables and that syllables are made up of phonemes. Children without phonological awareness do not understand what it means for words to rhyme, they do not appreciate alliteration (words that start with the same sound), and they do not understand that some words are longer than other words (the spoken form, that is, not necessarily the written form — the word area in its spoken form is longer than the word though, but in its written form, area is the shorter word).

Phoneme awareness

The phoneme is the basic building block for spoken words. In English, for example, there are an infinite number of possible words, but there are only about 45 phonemes. To make new words, we just delete or rearrange the phonemes — mat becomes man when the phoneme /t/ is replaced with the phoneme /n/, and deleting the phoneme /m/ from man leaves you with the word an.

While phonological awareness is a general term describing a child's awareness that spoken words are made up of sounds, phoneme awareness is a specific term that falls under the umbrella of phonological awareness. Phoneme awareness refers to the specific understanding that spoken words are made up of individual phonemes — not just sounds in general (which would include syllables, onsets, rimes, etc.). Children with phoneme awareness know that the spoken word bend contains four phonemes, and that the words pill and map both contain the phoneme /p/; they know that phonemes can be rearranged and substituted to make different words.

Phonological awareness is a step in the right direction, but phoneme awareness is what is necessary for the child to understand that the letters in written words represent the phonemes in spoken words (what we call the "alphabetic principle"). We spend a lot of time teaching children that the letter M stands for the sound /m/, but we rarely make sure that children understand that words like milk, ham and family all contain the phoneme /m/, or that the difference between man and an is the deletion of the phoneme /m/.

Phoneme awareness can be demonstrated in a variety of ways. The easiest phoneme awareness task is called blending — an adult pronounces a word with a pause between each phoneme (e.g. /b/ /a/ /l/), and the child blends the phonemes together to make the word ("ball"). A more challenging assessment for children is the reverse, called phoneme segmentation — the adult says the whole word, and the child says the word with pauses between the phonemes (adult says "ball," child says /b/ /a/ /l/). Even more challenging is phoneme manipulation — the adult tells the child to say a word without a particular phoneme (say "boat" without the /t/), or the adult tells the child to add a phoneme to a word to make a new word (What word would you have if you added the phoneme /o/ to the beginning of "pen?"). If the child can reliably do any of these tasks, the child has demonstrated true phoneme awareness, but a relevant point to make here is that the child doesn't need to do much more than these tasks to demonstrate phoneme awareness.

It is possible, in fact it is easy, to create phoneme awareness tasks that are exceptionally tricky, but these should be avoided rather than exploited. English contains many confusing phonemes — there are diphthongs and glides that can confuse anybody, even mature, experienced readers (How many phonemes do you hear in pay?), and there are odd phonemes that are not universally defined (How many phonemes are in the word ring or fur?), and there are clusters of phonemes that are harder to segment than other phonemes (a cluster is a group of consonants that are perceived as a unit, sometimes until the child begins spelling — for example, the /pr/ in pray, the /gl/ in glow, and the /sk/ in school). It is important for the teacher to remember that the child doesn't need to be an Olympic champion at phoneme manipulation — the child just needs to demonstrate knowledge of the fact that spoken words are made up of phonemes. It is also important that the teacher understands that phoneme awareness is not a magic bullet; it is important, and it is necessary for reading success, but it is only one skill of many that support literacy.


To recap, phonics is an instructional approach that emphasizes the letter-sound relationships (which letters represent which sounds). Phonetic reading and writing is a behavior the child exhibits that involves "sounding out" words the way they are written or writing words the way they sound (again, relating to the way letters represent speech sounds). Phonology has to do with the ability to hear the difference between different speech sounds (and has nothing to do with letters of the alphabet). Phonological awareness is a term used to describe the child's generic understanding that spoken words are made up of sounds. Phoneme awareness specifically refers to a child's knowledge that the basic building blocks of spoken words are the phonemes.

The Phive Phones of Reading by Sebastian Wren, Ph.D. Copyrighted © by Southwest Educational Development Laboratory. All rights reserved.

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Writing things the way they sound

Writing things the way they sound

Writing things the way they sound

The standard system used to write a language is called its orthography (from the Greek stems: ortho- 'correct' and graphy 'writing'). Even for languages whose writing systems are based on alphabets, the standard "correct" spellings often have little to do with how the words are pronounced.

Phonetic alphabets are designed (and necessary) for writing down an utterance in a way that records how it actually sounded. Ideally, someone who never heard the original utterance should be able to recreate it simply by reading the written transcription out loud.

How not to do it

Fiction writers will often try to give the impression that a speaker is using a different accent by deliberately misspelling some randomly chosen words.

Pets thim animals may be, an' domestic they be, but pigs I'm blame sure they do be, an' me rules says plain as the nose on yer face, 'Pigs Franklin to Westcote, thirty cints each.' An' Misther Morehouse, by me arithmetical knowledge two time thurty comes to sixty cints.

Ellis Parker Butler, "Pigs is pigs"

'Pears lak she should pay some 'tention to her fifth husban', or leastwise her fo'th, but she don'. I don' understan' wimmin. Seem lak ev'body settin' fire to somethin' ev'time I turn my back. Wonder any buildin's standin' in the whole gahdam United States.

James Thurber, "Bateman comes home"

Why not?

There are several problems with trying to use ordinary English spelling conventions to suggest how a word is pronounced.

First, doing so usually has offensive connotations. Writers seldom use misspelling for the speech of characters they are trying to get you to respect. While the misspellings may help suggest that a character speaks "differently" (from whom?), it usually also implies that the character is stupid or illiterate. (This is especially obvious with misspellings like "sez". So the character pronounces says like "sez", but so does everyone else, so what does the misspelling actually tell us?)

More importantly, English spelling conventions are not consistent enough to be used in a systematic phonetic transcription. Some problems:

  • The same letter or letter combination can refer to different sounds:
    • low vs. cow vs. bow, row, sow
  • The same sound can be written with different letters or letter combinations:
    • sound, cow, bough, sauerkraut, Mao
  • Different dialects pronounce the same word differently.
  • There's no way to represent non-English sounds.

The writer of a phonetic transcription facing a particular sound would have to choose between a number of different possible symbols. The reader of a phonetic transcription facing a given symbol could never be sure of what sound it was intended to represent.

There would be problems even if there were some consistency in how a symbol was used. The transcriber might say "the combination 'ay' always means the sound in the word 'day'" -- but would this be the word "day" as pronounced by a western Canadian, by an Australian, by a Londoner? Even if these problems could be solved, English spelling conventions would (for understandable reasons) only be useful in writing the sounds which occur in English -- they would be no help in writing sounds of other languages (or used by language-disordered children) which are not found in standard English.


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Hyphen between words - rules and examples

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Continuous, separate and hyphenated spelling of words is a real nightmare for most schoolchildren. There are indeed a lot of rules in this topic that you need to remember. But spelling doesn't seem so difficult if you understand it properly. This is what we will do today: we will consider which words are written together, separately or with a hyphen.


Hyphen in nouns

Let's see in which cases we can put a hyphen in words and between parts of a word, if we are talking about nouns. In total, we have three options for such a spelling, let's get to know everyone.

  1. If a noun has a root half- and the second root begins with a consonant l , a vowel or an uppercase letter, then there must be a hyphen between them:

  2. half lemon,

  3. half watermelon,

  4. half of Hungary etc.

  5. In all other cases, the morpheme gender with nouns is written together.

  6. If a compound noun is formed from two words without a connecting vowel, and both of them can be used as separate words, then a hyphen is written between its stems:

  7. Words are also written with a hyphen, namely compound nouns that denote cardinal points or geographical names:

Continuous spelling of nouns

Next, let's look at when nouns can be written together. Usually this concerns the spelling of complex words.

  1. Compound abbreviated nouns must be written together:

    • special forces,

    • gym,

    • Ministry of Culture etc.

  2. If a compound noun has a connecting vowel, it is also written together:

    • dump truck,

    • medical examination,

    • pipeline etc.

  3. If a noun has the root half-, and the second root does not begin with an uppercase letter, vowel or consonant l, it is written together. Also, a noun with the root semi- should be written together:

    • half measures,

    • nine0017

      half store,

    • half home etc.

  4. Complex nouns with foreign elements Avo- , Auto- , Agro- , Aero- , Bio-, Video- , hydro-, ZOO- , are also also written. metro , micro , motorcycle , tele , photo and some others:

    • hydrosphere,

    • autopilot

    • airport etc.

Test Yourself

Read the nouns below and identify which words are hyphenated and which are not. Open the brackets and support your answer with the rules in this section.

(Sea) swimmer, (half) boat, (half) coat, (half) continent, (half (Europe), (north) east, (St.) Petersburg, (sea) infantry

Demo lesson in Russian

Take the test at the introductory lesson and find out what topics separate you from the "five" in Russian.


Hyphen in adjectives

Adjectives can be written with a hyphen in three cases. Let's consider them in more detail together with examples.

  1. If the adjective is formed from compound nouns, parts of which are written with a hyphen, then the word itself must contain this hyphen:

    At the same time, if the adjective is formed from a compound noun without a hyphen, then the adjective itself must be written together. This can be seen in the example of the words motor ship - motor ship .

  2. If a compound adjective is formed by adding two words, put a hyphen between its stems. It is easy to define such words - between these bases you can add the union and :

    • Russian-German - Russian and German,

    • sweet and sour - sour and sweet.

  3. If a compound adjective reflects additional qualities of an object, for example, shades of color, a hyphen should be put between its parts:

    • bright green,

    • sky blue.

Continuous spelling of adjectives

  1. 0003

    • locomotive - locomotive,

    • lightning rod - lightning rod etc.

  2. If an adjective is formed from two independent words by addition with a suffix and a connecting vowel, it should also be written together:

    • Pacific + Ocean - Pacific,

    • railway + railway - railway etc.

    • nine0043

Test Yourself

Read the adjectives below and identify which words are hyphenated and which are not. Support your answer with the rules in this section.

Physics (mathematical), steam (carry), acid (yellow), garden (garden), helicopter (flight), water (wire).


Hyphen in adverbs

Now let's move on to adverbs and consider all cases when the words of this part of speech are written with a hyphen.

  1. If an adverb is formed from a noun or an adjective with the prefix in - and the suffixes -th , -th , -and , it must contain a hyphen:

  2. If the adverb has a prefix something or postfixes - something , - or , - something , then such an adverb is called indefinite . In this case, the word must be written with a hyphen:

  3. If an adverb is formed by repeating itself, its root or synonymous adverbs, it must also be hyphenated:

    • out of the blue,

    • a little,

    • little by little etc.

  4. In Russian, adverbs formed from ordinal numbers with the help of prefixes to -, to - and the suffix -ih ( -ih ), are written with a hyphen:

    • first,

    • third etc.

Continuous and separate spelling of adverbs

In other cases, adverbs are usually written together. At the same time, they are similar to combinations of prepositions and nouns that are homonymous to them, for example:

  • have not seen each other since the beginning of spring,

  • let's talk first

It is important not to confuse these parts of speech in a sentence in order to write them correctly. If in doubt, try replacing the word with another adverb or asking an adverbial question to it. If it works out, then this is an adverb, it needs to be written together.

Test Yourself

Read the phrases below and identify which words are hyphenated and which are not. Open the brackets and support your answer with the rules in this section.

(Some) where they stopped, the result (on) the face, (on) the face the light fell, once (on) a long time ago, (in) tenths, walks (barely) barely, figured it out (quietly) peacefully. nine0020


Hyphen in pronouns

Pronouns can only be hyphenated if they are indefinite. Moreover, they will always be used with the morphemes something-, something , something , or - just like the adverbs from the previous section:

  • something,

  • anyone,

  • some etc.

Joint and separate spelling of pronouns

If in an indefinite or negative pronoun there is a prefix not- or ni- , while there is no preposition between it and the root, it is written together:

If between neither or not and the pronoun there is a preposition, they must be written separately:

Also in Russian, particles nor and nor are written separately with all other categories of pronouns, except for indefinite and negative ones. In this case, all pronouns of any categories are written separately with prepositions:

  • something to talk about,

  • did not come by himself etc.

Test Yourself

Read the pronouns below and identify which words are hyphenated and which are not. Open the brackets and support your answer with the rules in this section.

Not (with) anyone, not (with) anyone, that (or), no (who), anyone (someone), (some) who, something (with) someone.

Hyphen in functional parts of speech

When a hyphen is written in prepositions

In prepositions, a hyphen can be found only in one case - if the preposition is compound (that is, it consists of two parts) and non-derivative (that is, it was not formed from a word of another part of speech). We have already discussed this topic in more detail in the article "Ranks of Prepositions". There you can also learn about cases when prepositions are written together or separately.

Examples of prepositions that are written with a hyphen:

  • from underground,

  • above the snow,

  • because of the mountains.

Continuous, hyphenated and separate writing of particles

Particles b, b, g, li, le must be written separately with the rest of the words:

  • will you come,

  • you'll see,

  • would show etc.

Words with particles -ka and -to are written with a hyphen:

  • come on,

  • tell me something etc.

It is important not to confuse conjunctions also and also with combinations of pronoun or adverb and particle same . They sound the same, but if the prepositions are written together, then the particle must be written separately with the pronoun then and the adverb so .


Pronoun/adverb + particle

We were also invited for a walk.

The garden is just as beautiful.

We didn't miss the chance either.

In the evening the same despondency seized me.

Hyphen in interjections and onomatopoeia

Now let's find out when a hyphen is written inside a word, if it is an interjection or onomatopoeia. nine0003

  1. Complex and sometimes compound interjections, which include two or more words, are written with a hyphen:

    • bayushki,

    • by God etc.

  2. It often happens that an interjection or onomatopoeia is formed by the repetition of words. In this case, it is also written with a hyphen

    • co-co-co,

    • hee hee etc.

Test Yourself

Now that we have discussed the theoretical part of the topic in detail, let's practice to determine the continuous, hyphenated and separate spelling of words in Russian.

Read the phrases below and determine which parts of speech the words they contain belong to. Open the brackets and put a hyphen where needed. Explain why you chose a particular spelling option using the general rules we covered in this article. nine0003

I got out of (under) the snow, someone strong, we will get to know each other, a little (slightly) tired, somewhere far away, from (the beginning) of the path, looked (in) cunning, raincoat (tent) , English (French), light (beige), treated (like) humanly, (half) a cucumber.

We hope that after this article, the continuous, separate and hyphenated spelling of words will no longer seem like a difficult issue to you. And if not, try again to analyze this topic, but with the teacher. In the lessons at the Skysmart online Russian language school, we will explain it in simple language and teach you to see the logic in the rules for hyphenation, and not memorize them. This will help you not be afraid of tests, improve your grades and go to school with pleasure. nine0003

Cheat sheets for parents

All Rules in Russian at hand at hand

Alena Fedotova

author Skysmart

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Sloves of words 9000

Plan development of speech and writing at a free introductory lesson

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  1. We will identify gaps in knowledge and give advice on learning

  2. Let's tell you how the classes are going

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Russian language exceptions: why exactly?

Studying spelling rules in the Russian language lessons, we often encounter exceptions to the rules that we mechanically memorize without thinking about the nature of their origin. And teachers do not explain this phenomenon of Russian spelling, but simply offer it as a fact. I was also interested in the reasons for the emergence of exception words in Russian orthography. It seems that this material can be used by literature teachers in Russian language lessons, since knowledge of historical processes in the development of the language is necessary for more successful learning. nine0003

I offer a small historical comment, which I managed to find in various scientific works.

1. Spelling: and, a, y after hissing.

A striking example of historical spelling in Russian is the letter and after the consonants zh, sh. We say zhy, shy, but we write zhi, shi, because these combinations were pronounced this way at the dawn of our writing, when consonants w, w were soft. And only three words: jury, brochure, parachute, following the transliteration principle, are written through y. The spelling of these words reflects both French pronunciation and spelling: jury - jury, brochure - brochure, parachute - parachute. If these words were still in the Old Russian language, then their spelling would fully and completely reflect the traditional principle of Russian spelling, since w, w were soft. But these words came to us in the 19th century, when w, w had already hardened, and became exceptions to the rule.

2. Spelling: letters o - ё after hissing at the root of the word.

Recall that in school textbooks this rule sounds like this: “At the root, after hissing under stress, it is written e, not o. Exception words: rustle, gooseberry, seam, hood, etc. "But if you follow the mechanism of this rule, you will see that the letter e - e is written when the stress in the word on this syllable is not constant and when new words are formed switches to another syllable: chewed - chew, wives - wife, bangs - forehead, etc. And in such words as rustle, seam, clink glasses, glutton, gluttonous, the root syllable, with all changes in the word, remains stressed and does not alternate with ё. (By the way, such scientists as K.I. Bylinsky, D.E. Rosenthal and others speak about this)

Shouldn't the wording of this rule in school textbooks be changed: “In the root, after the hissing words, ё is written when the stress on the root is not constant; and it is written about if the root remains stressed with all changes in the word "? Then students will not need to memorize a huge number of words that fell into the category of exceptions.

But what to do with such words as driver, highway, chocolate, juggler, etc., which for some reason are also considered by compilers of school textbooks in this rule? nine0003

They are all foreign and are written in accordance with the transliteration principle, falling into the category of dictionary words.

And yet, I would like to separately talk about three more words, since their etymology is of particular interest: gooseberry, thicket, slum.

Gooseberry. Etymologically, this word has two suffixes: -ov-, -nick-. In modern Russian, where the word kryzh has gone into a passive reserve, the root has grown together with the suffix -ov-. This makes memorize this word as an exception, while it consistently adheres to the rule of writing o - ё in suffixes after hissing. nine0003

Slum. The word is also formed with the help of the suffix -ob- from an unpreserved brushwood - "brushwood, crackling". This means that the rule “O - e in suffixes after hissing” applies here too.

The word thicket, formed from the well-known word thicket, obeys the same principle. It has a thicket root and a -ob- suffix.

Of course, in modern Russian we do not correlate the words slum and cod, gooseberry and kryzh, and perhaps a simplification has occurred here. But for the word thicket, we still select a single-rooted thicket. Is it appropriate then to apply the rule “Letters o - e after words hissing at the root” here? nine0003

3. Spelling: letters and -s after c.

The spelling of letters and - s after ц developed spontaneously, but later these spellings were attached to certain morphemes. Writing qi at the root is a historical phenomenon. Words with such a combination of letters are usually foreign. After c, it is also written in accordance with the soft or semi-soft pronunciation of those sounds that are transmitted in Russian by the letter c, for example: civilization from lat. civilis, quote - lat. citatum. In Russian, the letter ts conveys a solid sound, after which only [s], but not [i], can be pronounced. Since there are an overwhelming majority of borrowed words with qi at the root, Russian words with tsy at the root (tsygan, tiptoe, chick, tsyknut, tsyts) were included in the exceptions. nine0003

Paradox! But in Russian orthography, Russian words proper became exceptions.

4. Spelling: letters e - and in the personal endings of verbs.

In Old Russian, verbs were divided into 4 thematic classes. The verbs of the fourth class included verbs with a zero suffix in the stem of the present tense and with the suffix -i- in the infinitive, as well as with the stem on yat () in the infinitive, and after hissing and yot on -a. The fourth class of thematic verbs belonged to the second conjugation ! nine0003

For example:

offend - offend;

see - you see;

hear - hear.

Thus, the verbs to hear, to see, to hate, to depend, to endure, to persecute, to hold, to breathe, to offend, to watch, to twirl were originally verbs of the second conjugation. And the modern wording of the rule "made" them exceptions.

Lay. In modern Russian, there are two forms of this verb: lay (1st conjugation) and lay (2nd conjugation). But the present tense forms for both verbs in the literary language are usually used in common: stelesh, stelet, stele (that is, they change according to the first conjugation). nine0003

We did not find any other grounds for this group of exclusions.

5. Spelling: one and two letters and in adjectives.

Morphological, word-formation and accentological changes have consistently occurred in the Russian language. But only in three words - glass, tin, wood - these patterns intertwined and gave an amazing result.

Initially, in the ancient period, all denominative adjectives were formed using suffixes -an- - -yan- , but at the same time they received different stress. And already from these suffixal adjectives, new forms could arise with an additional suffix -н- . According to this rule, the words were written like this: wooden-yan-yn-ny, tin-yan-yn-ny. But due to the disappearance of the ultra-short sound ь the stress shifted to the previous syllable and fixed here, new words arose wooden, tin. nine0713

A adjective glassy, ​​ retaining the old stress on the suffix, at the same time left “reinforced and ” - and fell into the category of exceptions. This word, even receiving the suffix -н-, , never transferred the stress to the root, because its root also consisted of the super-short ъ: stkln - the whole word consisted of only super-short vowels. After the loss of weak ultra-short word stkln gave the form stklen, which is so difficult to pronounce that it has not been preserved in Russian.

Origin of the word-exclusion windy transparent. In Old Russian, it belonged to verbal adjectives formed from the imperfective verb wind, and was written with one n, and as soon as the prefix (calm) was added, the word was written with two letters - nn .

Today the word windy has turned into adjectives, but retained its old spelling.

6. Spelling: soft sign in imperative verbs.

In modern Russian, in the second person singular, there are three types of imperative mood:

a) with a final soft consonant: be, touch, drop;

b) with shock end - and: walk, poi, cut

c) with final th after the vowel: think, know, read.

Thus, the forms of the imperative mood are formed from the pure stem of the present and future simple tenses with alternating hard and soft consonants and from the pure stem plus the suffix -and-.

A form lay was an exception due to its hard consonant at the end. In this case, the sound matter resists the graphic form. When reading this form, the set soft sign causes the perception of a combination of signs r . Meanwhile, soft posterior linguals, as a rule, cannot stand at the end of words: normally they are not used that way. In other words, the pronunciation norm of the Russian language "intervenes" here - and the word is pronounced in accordance with this norm. nine0003

7. Spelling: o - e after hissing in adverbs.

More. Few people know that the word more was originally an unstressed particle, in which ё was written according to the rule. And only then this word acquired the meaning of "greater" and became an adverb. The spelling has been preserved.

8. Spelling: soft sign after hissing in adverbs.

You can explain the exceptions already, married, unbearable as follows: these adverbs come from the noun already, endure, husband, which belong to the second declension and are written without a soft sign.

Another fact is interesting: the adverb wide open is formed from the preposition on and the noun of the second declension stitch (obsolete) - “hook, pillar”, however this word was no exception and is written with a soft sign. nine0003

9. Spelling: Passive participle suffix of the present tense.

Movable. This participle is formed from the old verb move, referring to the second conjugation, which means that the participle is written with the suffix -im-.

10. Orthogram: alternating roots.

Why there were exceptions in this spelling - there is only fragmentary information about this.

Plain. nine0332 A plain is a horizontally flat place, that is, all its points are located at equal to distance from sea level.

In terms of meaning, this word is no longer associated with the root lag - lies .

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