Fluency in literacy

Fluency | Reading Rockets

Fluency is defined as the ability to read with speed, accuracy, and proper expression. In order to understand what they read, children must be able to read fluently whether they are reading aloud or silently. When reading aloud, fluent readers read in phrases and add intonation appropriately. Their reading is smooth and has expression.

Children who do not read with fluency sound choppy and awkward. Those students may have difficulty with decoding skills or they may just need more practice with speed and smoothness in reading. Fluency is also important for motivation; children who find reading laborious tend not to want read! As readers head into upper elementary grades, fluency becomes increasingly important. The volume of reading required in the upper elementary years escalates dramatically. Students whose reading is slow or labored will have trouble meeting the reading demands of their grade level.

What the problem looks like

A kid's perspective: What this feels like to me

Children will usually express their frustration and difficulties in a general way, with statements like "I hate reading!" or "This is stupid!". But if they could, this is how kids might describe how fluency difficulties in particular affect their reading:

  • I just seem to get stuck when I try to read a lot of the words in this chapter.
  • It takes me so long to read something.
  • Reading through this book takes so much of my energy, I can't even think about what it means.

A parent's perspective: What I see at home

Here are some clues for parents that a child may have problems with fluency:

  • He knows how to read words but seems to take a long time to read a short book or passage silently.
  • She reads a book with no expression.
  • He stumbles a lot and loses his place when reading something aloud.
  • She reads aloud very slowly.
  • She moves her mouth when reading silently (subvocalizing).

A teacher's perspective: What I see in the classroom

Here are some clues for teachers that a student may have problems with fluency:

  • Her results on words-correct-per-minute assessments are below grade level or targeted benchmark.
  • She has difficulty and grows frustrated when reading aloud, either because of speed or accuracy.
  • He does not read aloud with expression; that is, he does not change his tone where appropriate.
  • She does not "chunk" words into meaningful units.
  • When reading, he doesn't pause at meaningful breaks within sentences or paragraphs.

How to help

With the help of parents and teachers, kids can learn strategies to cope with fluency issues that affect his or her reading. Below are some tips and specific things to do.

What kids can do to help themselves

  • Track the words with your finger as a parent or teacher reads a passage aloud. Then you read it.
  • Have a parent or teacher read aloud to you. Then, match your voice to theirs.
  • Read your favorite books and poems over and over again. Practice getting smoother and reading with expression.

What parents can do to help at home

  • Support and encourage your child. Realize that he or she is likely frustrated by reading.
  • Check with your child's teachers to find out their assessment of your child's word decoding skills.
  • If your child can decode words well, help him or her build speed and accuracy by:
    • Reading aloud and having your child match his voice to yours
    • Having your child practice reading the same list of words, phrase, or short passages several times
    • Reminding your child to pause between sentences and phrases
  • Read aloud to your child to provide an example of how fluent reading sounds.
  • Give your child books with predictable vocabulary and clear rhythmic patterns so the child can "hear" the sound of fluent reading as he or she reads the book aloud.
  • Use books on tapes; have the child follow along in the print copy.

What teachers can do to help at school

  • Assess the student to make sure that word decoding or word recognition is not the source of the difficulty (if decoding is the source of the problem, decoding will need to be addressed in addition to reading speed and phrasing).
  • Give the student independent level texts that he or she can practice again and again. Time the student and calculate words-correct-per-minute regularly. The student can chart his or her own improvement.
  • Ask the student to match his or her voice to yours when reading aloud or to a tape recorded reading.
  • Read a short passage and then have the student immediately read it back to you.
  • Have the student practice reading a passage with a certain emotion, such as sadness or excitement, to emphasize expression and intonation.
  • Incorporate timed repeated readings into your instructional repertoire.
  • Plan lessons that explicitly teach students how to pay attention to clues in the text (for example, punctuation marks) that provide information about how that text should be read.

More information

Find out more about fluency issues with these resources:

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What Is Fluency? Why Is Fluency Important? :: Read Naturally, Inc.

What Is Fluency?

Fluency is the ability to read "like you speak." Hudson, Lane, and Pullen define fluency this way: "Reading fluency is made up of at least three key elements: accurate reading of connected text at a conversational rate with appropriate prosody or expression." Non-fluent readers suffer in at least one of these aspects of reading: they make many mistakes, they read slowly, or they don't read with appropriate expression and phrasing.

​ Developing reading fluency with Read Naturally Strategy programs

Key Concepts

Why Is Fluency Important?

For many years, educators have recognized that fluency is an important aspect of reading. Reading researchers agree. Over 30 years of research indicates that fluency is one of the critical building blocks of reading, because fluency development is directly related to comprehension.

Here are the results of one study by Fuchs, Fuchs, Hosp, and Jenkins that shows how oral reading fluency correlates highly with reading comprehension. 

Measure Validity Coefficients
Oral Recall/Retelling .70
Cloze (fill in the blank) .72
Question Answering .82
Oral Reading Fluency .91

To interpret this type of correlation data, consider that a perfect match would be 1. 0. As you can see, oral recall/retelling, fill in the blank, and question answering are all above 0.6, which indicates there is a strong correlation. But oral reading fluency is by far the strongest, with a .91 correlation.

Many researchers, including Breznitz, Armstrong, Knupp, Lesgold, and Pinnell, have found that fluency is highly correlated with reading comprehension—that is, when a student reads fluently, that student is likely to comprehend what he or she is reading.

Why are reading fluency and reading comprehension so highly correlated? Dr. S. Jay Samuels, a professor and researcher well known for his work in fluency, put forth a theory called the automaticity theory. According to Dr. Samuels, people have a limited amount of mental energy. If you want to multitask or to become proficient at a complex task such as reading, you first need to master the component tasks so you can do them automatically. For example, a reader who must focus his or her attention on decoding words may not have enough mental energy left over to think about the meaning of the text.  However, a fluent reader who can automatically decode the words can instead give full attention to comprehending the text. To become proficient readers, our students need to become automatic with text so they can pay attention to the meaning.

See also:
  • Determining who needs fluency instruction
  • Hasbrouck-Tindal oral reading fluency norms
  • Video: Why reading fluency is important
Challenges Faced by Non-Fluent Readers

Students become fluent by reading. Some students learn to read fluently without explicit instruction. For others, however, fluency doesn't develop in the course of normal classroom instruction. 

Research analyzed by the National Reading Panel suggests that just encouraging students to read independently isn't the most effective way to improve reading achievement. Too often, simply encouraging at-risk students to read doesn't result in increased reading on their part. During sustained silent reading, at-risk readers may get a book with mostly pictures and look at the pictures, or they choose a difficult book so they will look like everyone else and then pretend to read.

Even if at-risk students do read, they read more slowly than the other students. In a 10-minute reading period, a proficient reader who reads 200 words a minute silently could read 2,000 words. In the same 10 minutes, an at-risk student who reads 50 words a minute would only read 500 words. This is equal reading time but certainly not an equal number of words read.

These students need to read more, but just asking them to read on their own often doesn't work. The National Reading Panel has concluded that a more effective course of action is for us to explicitly teach developing readers how to read fluently, step by step.

Research-Proven Fluency Strategies

How do we explicitly teach students to read fluently? The National Reading Panel found data supporting three strategies that improve fluency, comprehension, and reading achievement—teacher modeling, repeated reading, and progress monitoring.

Teacher Modeling

The first strategy is teacher modeling.  Research demonstrates that various forms of modeling can improve reading fluency. Examples of teacher modeling include:

  • Teacher-assisted reading
  • Peer-assisted reading
  • Audio-assisted reading

Teacher modeling involves more than just listening to someone else read. Students must be actively involved 100 percent of the time and in a multisensory way.

Teacher modeling teaches word recognition in a meaningful context, demonstrates correct phrasing, and gives students practice tracking across the page. A child can benefit from teacher modeling once he or she knows at least 50 sight words and has a good sense of beginning sounds.

The reading rate of the model reader is important. Christopher Skinner, a reading researcher, found that students who read lists of words with him slowly were more fluent with the words than students who read with him at a faster rate. The slower rate enables students to learn new words and clarify difficult words.  As students learn more words, they naturally become more fluent.

Another form of modeling is the neurological impress method. In the neurological impress method, a proficient and a struggling reader read together from a passage, with the more able reader reading near the rate of the struggling reader. Heckelman (1969) showed that after 29 15-minute sessions, 24 seventh- through ninth-grade boys, who were an average of 3 years behind in reading, gained an average of 1.9 years in reading based on the Oral Gilmore and the California Achievement Test.

Repeated Reading

Another technique that research has shown significantly builds reading fluency is repeated reading. In fact, the National Reading Panel says this is the most powerful way to improve reading fluency. This involves simply reading the same material over and over again until accurate and expressive.

In the 1970s, LaBerge and Samuels studied what happens when students read passages over and over again.  They found that when students reread passages, they got faster at reading the passages, understood them better, and were able to read subsequent passages better as a result of the repeated reading.

Repeated reading is a form of mastery learning. The students read the same words so many times that they begin to know them and are able to identify them in other text. Besides helping students bring words to mastery, repeated reading changes the way students view themselves in relation to the act of reading.

Progress Monitoring

People who play video games are presented with a specific goal and with immediate, relevant feedback about their progress toward that goal. This combination of having a goal and getting feedback on progress can be very motivating.

Progress monitoring takes advantage of this combination to motivate students to read. You give students a specific, individual reading goal, and you tell them exactly how you're going to know they've met it.  Then, you give them the means to measure how they're doing. Finally, you make it simple enough that they'll know they've met their goal even before you do. This progress monitoring is what motivates students to practice reading the same story over and over until achieving mastery.

​Developing Reading Fluency With Read Naturally Strategy Programs

The research-based Read Naturally Strategy combines these three strategies into highly effective programs that accelerate reading achievement. Students become confident readers by developing fluency, phonics skills, comprehension, and vocabulary while reading leveled text. The time-tested intervention programs engage students with interesting nonfiction stories and yield powerful results.

 Learn more about the Read Naturally Strategy
 Research basis for the Read Naturally Strategy

The Read Naturally Strategy is available in a variety of formats: 

Choosing the right Read Naturally Strategy program

One Minute Reader®
Structured, supplemental reading program for developing literacy skills independently. Available in these formats:
One Minute Reader Live (component of web-based Read Live for supplemental reading at school)
One Minute Reader books/audio CDs (for a school-to-home checkout program)


Armstrong, S. W. (1983). The effects of material difficulty upon learning disabled children's oral reading and reading comprehension. Learning Disability Quarterly, 6, pp. 339–348.

Breznitz, Z. (1987). Increasing first graders' reading accuracy and comprehension by accelerating their reading rates. Journal of Educational Psychology, 79(3), pp. 236–242.

Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hosp, M. K., & Jenkins, J. R. (2001). Oral reading fluency as an indicator of reading competence: A theoretical, empirical, and historical analysis. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5(3), pp. 239–256.

Heckelman, R. G. (1969). A neurological-impress method of remedial-reading instruction. Academic Therapy Quarterly, 5(4), pp. 277–282.

Hudson, R. F., H. B. Lane, and P. C. Pullen. (2005). Reading fluency assessment and instruction: What, why, and how. Reading Teacher 58(8), pp. 702-714.

Knupp, R. (1988). Improving oral reading skills of educationally handicapped elementary school-aged students through repeated readings. Practicum paper, Nova University (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 297275).

LaBerge, D., & Samuels, S. J. (1974). Toward a theory of automatic information processing in reading. Cognitive Psychology, 6, pp. 292–323.

Lesgold, A., Resnick, L. B., & Hammond, K. (1985). Learning to read: A longitudinal study of word skill development in two curricula. In G. Waller & E. MacKinon (eds.), Reading research:  Advances in theory and practice. New York, NY: Academic Press.

National Reading Panel. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction.  Washington, DC: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.

Pinnell, G. S., Pikulski, J. J., Wixson, K. K., Campbell, J. R., Gough, P. B., & Beatty, A. S. (1995). Listening to children read aloud: Data from NAEP's integrated reading performance record (IRPR) at grade 4 (NCES Publication 95-726). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Educational Statistics.

Samuels, S. J. (2002). Reading fluency: Its development and assessment. In A. E. Farstrup & S. J. Samuels (eds.), What research has to say about reading instruction, 3rd ed., pp. 166–183. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Samuels, S. J. (1997). The method of repeated readings. The Reading Teacher, 50(5), pp. 376–381.

Samuels, S. J. (2006). Towards a model of reading fluency. In S. J. Samuels and A. E. Farstrup (eds.), What research has to say about fluency instruction. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Samuels, S. J. (1997). The method of repeated readings. The Reading Teacher, 50(5), pp. 376–381.

Skinner, C. H., Logan, P., Robinson, S. L., & Robinson, D. H. (1997). Demonstration as a reading intervention for exceptional learners. School Psychology Review, 26(3), pp. 437–447.

The results of the annual competition of experimental texts "Games with Meaning" were summed up

Diplomas of the winners of the competition

The Department of Russian Language and Stylistics summed up the results of the annual competition of experimental texts "Games with Meaning"
so that a certain stylistic task is realized in the texts they composed, but at the same time the texts would have an independent artistic value. The goals of the competition are not in doubt, because fluency in language tools for authors is undoubtedly the key to the success of their future texts.

This year the winners are 2nd year students of full-time and part-time faculties.

Balobanova Valeria

Compose a text richly using the stylistic resources of synonymy.

What a misfortune!
What a misfortune!
what a misfortune
and was created:
worked hard,
worked, pored over,
learned the names of all
cosmic bodies,
but something did not go according to plan:
and I grabbed,
a mark that I didn’t want so much!
they put my “couple” in the diary,
a swan,
put two.
oh, how my head ached,
birdhouse, my tambourine,
head, bowler hat.
I'd rather have learned this lesson.
and mother would not have carried the diary in disgrace,
would not have written,
would not have dragged
and there would have been no tears.
but here I am -
at home,
I bring the diary
to the kitchen,
where my mother cooks noodles.
and "bad" my scarlet.
ruddy "two",
where my mother caught my eye
and my mother scolded,
scolded me,
and beat the dishes,
cursing science.
but I knew that
time would pass,
would fly by,
and my mother would treat me to

Bobylev Bogdan

Compose a text richly using the stylistic resources of sound writing.

How the wolf learned to fly

Fairy tale

Once upon a time there was a wolf. The wolf was full. I was full for an hour, I was full for two. Walked, walked, sat down. The wolf is not full. Everything. The saturation time passed very quickly. The wolf thought, thought: we must go to get food.

He goes hunting, and the leaves rustle under his feet. They rustle, rustle and whisper: “You are still walking without breathing, slowly, but making noise! It’s quiet around, you’re trampling on our bumps, you’re not joking!” And the wolf was offended that the leaves rustled, did not allow him to move silently, took hold of the spruce branch with his paws, pulled it away, and flew away.

A wolf is flying over the forest, looking: a fox is catching a lemming. The wolf thought, thought - are there lemmings in the forests? He had never seen these little ones before. He lived, lived, did not grieve, walked the earth, but did not see lemmings. And as soon as you take off, don’t give a damn about laziness and unnecessary worries, open the boundaries of the mind, stop playing the role of a slave to your prejudices - and you are not a slave, you break through the routine, see at the root, play the role of a prophet, you fly! And you know what lemmings are! You have no boundaries! There are no limits! No sadness! No laziness! You rush slowly across the sky, and there is no end to your possibilities, just as there is no end to your homeland.

“We are flying over the Far East,” the wolf thought. "Wide Russia!" he whispered. “Here is Sikhote-Alin, here is Amur-priest, here is the Sea of ​​Okhotsk, and here is the Sea of ​​Japan! And this is Sakhalin. And the Kuril Islands. The beauty! I’ll turn back to Kamchatka.”

Just made a turn, looked around - a falcon flies near him. Such a fat falcon.

– Oh, great, dear falcon! Tell me, what hour is none?

- Hello, dear! It's almost half past two, about it!

- Welcome! Cold though! the wolf answered.

– Exactly!

– Interpret, Sokol, is this the Sea of ​​Okhotsk? the wolf inquired.

– I will gladly explain! Okhotsk! Peninsula soon. Just be careful: there is a lot of smoke from the peninsula, fire, emissions, burning mountains. That's why my father-in-law got badly burned on the eighth of October, that was on Tuesday. But gold, tin, silver - just a lot! If you are a geologist, this is a good area! Useful experience!

Gray was surprised: what other mountains are on fire? But the falcon has already flown away. The wolf decided to fly away from the mountains, and go downhill: he really wanted to eat.

Landed right in the lake! Came out, sees: a hare.

A wolf came up to a hare, and he was talking to a bun:

– I am sitting, sitting on the table, and climbed onto the windowsill!

– And the grandfather? the hare asked impatiently.

- Yes, grandfather, what a grandfather! Grandfather is lying on the stove, sleeping.

– And the woman? – immediately asked the hare.

– A woman, what a woman… She cooks in the kitchen, sings, does not hear.

– And you?

– Well, I am what I am. I ran out into the street, I walk, I roll.

- Huh?

- Yeah, well, yeah. I rolled up to you, I stand, I say.

– And me? the hare asks even more impatiently.

– Well, what are you... Look at me, talk to me, let me go.

– Where to?! - the hare almost screamed.

Gingerbread man thought, saw a wolf.

- Where, where. I'll go to the wolf, I'll tell you.

– And the wolf?! - not restraining himself, often kicking the ground, the hare shouted.

- Well, wolf, wolf. You will be swallowed, eaten.

The wolf did not think for a long time, took and ate the hare. And the bun rolled on.

A well-fed wolf is walking through the forest, and he wants to go home. I was about to take off when I heard: someone was reading poetry in the forest. He approached, saw - the inscription: "All-Russian competition of readers among animals."

Lynx read.

Unfolded widely

Young Russia-land!

Falcons are flying high,

Poplars are making noise in the forests!

I will meet a chamois on the road,

I will not eat, I will let you go!

All animals are free,

I'm not looking for extra blood!

Hares are babbling:

– Bravo!

Grouse cluck:

– Encore!

Hogs are squealing:

- Miracle!

Reindeer convey admiration in an unknown forest dialect. Wild cats, bears and tigers applaud discreetly.

The squirrel in a luxurious dress, with beautifully laid hair and large eyelashes, announces an open microphone.

Everyone is shy: it's scary to go out after brilliant performances. But our respected wolf volunteered to speak almost immediately. He got up, left, bowed.

– Let's welcome the daredevil! - solemnly announces the squirrel.

– How do you hear? said the wolf. Hall smiled and nodded in the affirmative. “I didn’t really prepare. I'm not from here at all. But I would still like to speak. In general, I am from the middle zone... We have a huge taiga, wide-wide, indescribable spaces of emerald massifs, a horizon adorned with ruby ​​strokes of watercolor... but you have all this too. I am just like you, and you are like me. And I know you, and you know me. And I would like you to feel it, - the wolf broke off, lowered his muzzle, frowning. Then he abruptly raised his eyes and began:

I'm just like you, lost!
There is no way to get away from yourself . ..
If I meet a hare in a thicket,
I will not dance a hopak with him!
If I want to eat strongly,
I will shed tears strongly,
Pouring that the law is debility again
Forces me to kill.
And I will immediately tell you, friends,
I will eat you if I want to eat.
I'm the same as you, beasts,
I just don't knock on the chest with my heel.

Silence hung in the hall, only the bear growled approvingly, and in the distance one could hear the friendly cawing of local wolves, which were not invited to the competition.

The wolf realized that it was time for him to go home, grabbed the nearest larch branch, pulled away, and flew away.

The wolf was full. He was glad. Tooth for tooth, eye for eye - the wolf was right. He lay down to sleep. He slept for a day, he slept for two. Got up. The dream flew by completely unnoticed, the dawn gently and gently stroked the wool of the gray wolf with its rays, and he again rustled through the thicket to eat.

Write a text that makes rich use of the stylistic resources of synonymy.

Continuation of the story of the bun from the fairy tale about the Wolf. Spin-off

Glanced at the departing wolf. Gray walked contentedly, shuffling his feet on the ground, hobbling, walking quietly, barely moving, crawling, lying down, sleeping. The wolf fell asleep, and the thick bread looked, looked, and rolled further.

A bun rolls, and a tiger meets it. The bun remembered that the best attack is a defense, and the best defense is an attack, and how he stuck to the striped one, as if the kolob is a bath leaf, and the toothed one is a fan of steaming, warming up, pouring some water on the coals. Well, it flew up, rolled up, hobbled, a bun crept up:

- Dear! Why are you late, huh? Life is superfluous - do you go here? - menacingly, with a grin, affectionately and plaintively whispering, the gingerbread man asked.

- What are you, round, mixed up? the snarling tiger asked, shouting.

- No way, that is, I didn’t mix it up, that is, I answered clearly, that is, I deliberately specified it. And yet tell me, dear, deeply revered, leader, leader, king, sultan, lord tiger, why are you so good as to be late, sir?

- The authorities are not late, the authorities are late! But where can I be late? Are you brainwashing me?

- It's not powder, it's make-up! I'm preparing for the role, so I decided to preen. Or rather, not to preen, but even to get dressed up! After all, I'm going to a performance dedicated to you, dear tiger! But not even for a production, but for a performance, a theatrical spectacle! "A spectacle for a tiger" - that's what it's called!

- Well, what a tiger I am. I'm more of a predator. But actually I am very kind. Not soft at all! I can't stand it. I am soft when I buy and dry. But in general - nothing! Everyone needs to be stricter! And they won't appreciate it. The main thing is to appreciate! Am I protecting the forest?

- Protect! I would even say - cover with all your wide chest! Defend! Watch out!

- Well, no, I don't like this kind of thing. .. What kind of example will I set for the animals if I do this... Then they wouldn't put on performances about me. I don't watch, I still protect. And let me tell you, my dear, chick, sparrow, caliber, but where is this very production?

- And she is at the main edge. I was just there, our esteemed production director hare asked me to bring, submit, lay additional props on the site, that is, the scenery, that is, a part for the forest landscape, that is, a couple of branches.

- Yeah, great! Well. That's wonderful. Monsieur, thank you sincerely, thank you for the information. Nobody told me.

- And the hare should have told you. He's probably on his way to you right now. But you go, as if by accident, completely unexpectedly, without any intention, not on purpose, I would even say - inadvertently showed up on the edge!

- Oh, how you said it! Inadvertently! Indeed, if anyone can be rock, it's me. I can control fate. And if something happens by chance, that is, I don’t do it on purpose, it’s by accident. That is, it was not predetermined by fate, it was not on purpose. Well, I'm leaving! I can't wait for you!

- Of course! I will be right back! - whispered, said, shouted, shouted, sang, called the bun and rolled.

The bun rolled, but he began to lead an unhealthy lifestyle, but he stopped playing sports. For a long time he was not seen in the forest. And he showed up soon after. He didn't show up for a long time, but then he showed up. It reappeared later. After a while, he introduced himself again.

End! More precisely, a temporary completion, the end of the first act. Dot. That's it, the author is dead! Wait for the next action in another practical lesson, another homework. Well, that's it, goodbye! Farewell! Thank you! Thank you Arevoir! But passaran! They won't get through! All the best! Bon Voyage! Good luck, stalkers! Be happy, take care of yourself and your loved ones! Bye!


Ermolina Maria

Texts using dialectisms and obsolete vocabulary.

from the cycle “Five Letters to the North”

(notes from the Dictionary of Pomeranian Speak)

Letter Third

, where the lore shores are
where Baiga covers the forest,
migrants battleships in flocks
On the eel they twist knez .

I envy you, winged ones,
On aneva keeping the way.
It can be seen that I was once a bird,
I will return to you someday.

The wind gradually drives the waves,
The sea rustles the pines in response.
Attles are white, free seagulls,
Take your pure light

Baiga - thick and heavy fog

Auta - sea seagull

Unde - nest

ANEVA - long dawn along the horizont and change of weather

and without tension, easily and freely

Letter Fourth


Whether the grandmother was icon,
, whether she was picked by
since childhood, how much I live as I live under the sun,
I collected trifles.

There were buttons for curtains,
There were bird feathers for curtains,
Like pictures for children in the house
They live without space and time.

As if turned inside out
I decided my memory to the pain -
Became a tablecloth - self-assembly,
Inhabited the ship.

And that ship sails along bare and ,
Turning around botnik .
I walk with bare feet,
I walk barefoot along the stern.

Konoki - amulets, talismans, pendants

Zabol - honestly, in truth

Golomya - open sea0007

Zhukaeva Marina Eduardovna,
2nd year Ph.D., prose

Compose your own text (prose or poetic) using stylistic resources of ambiguity and homonymy.

My Summer sleep

History from each life ...

once, three spring ago, the shower was an empty shelter . ..

I in eighteen are gray-gray spirit,

The fuse is gone and the spirit is broken.

I tore the handles off the doors of my soul,

My friends are notebooks, pens.

And so – week after week…

But summer… Summer came – and love was born in the soul…

Loving someone is the highest gift.

The Lord sent you to me as a gift:

Your clear face, your eyes light.

The white light comes to life again!

How strange: once again my soul is not empty...

Inspiration came with love. And it rushed, and rushed...

Look behind the gaze, after the verse - the verse,

The voice of reason shyly subsided.

I only hear the whisper of our souls:

It is born in the shower bath.

Dreams, dreams. Dreams - and only ...

Your eyes do not see me. Mine see only you. ..

Our romance did not take place

(I will dedicate a novel to him).

July is over,

It's time for me to say goodbye to you.

What a pity that we had to part ...

But day after day - and everything is mixed together ...

More than a couple of years pass.

No cold winters and hot summers,

No matter where the war is, where there is peace:

You replaced the whole world for me.

But being alone and I'm tired...

Alas, it suddenly became hard for me: to love so long and in vain...

The moon is shining above your head.

Well, nothing, just a month more,

And then a couple more years

Without hot winters and frozen years.

After all, feelings destroy gently...

The soul, having suffered enough, will stifle all love for you.

Wishes to future participants of the competition0028 Here you came up with, made
Probably, firmly, for years -
From now on, use the verb:

Write, Strop, and even kill yourself -
Not a day without a line, without a verse, 9000
to brush was bold, light
For each new song.

Criteria for assessing the performance of tasks in musical literacy



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80-100 points. Grade "5" .

- The topic is fully disclosed.

- Fluency in the musical terminological thesaurus.

- All theoretical positions are supported by practical examples: the answer contains visual material: illustrations on the instrument, musical examples.

- All exercises are done without errors.

- Answers to additional questions are exhaustive.

Thus, fluency in theoretical material was revealed, the amount of theoretical knowledge meets the requirements.

55-79 points. Grade "4" .

- The topic as a whole is disclosed, some points are not fully disclosed. There are minor errors in the answer.

- In general, the knowledge of the musical terminological thesaurus was revealed, however, some inaccuracies in the terminology were made.

- Most of the theoretical provisions are supported by practical examples.

- In the exercises (in a smaller part) errors were made.

- Answers to a number of additional questions do not exhaust all possible options.

Thus, minor miscalculations were made in the listed requirements, the student as a whole showed an understanding of the theoretical material.

40-54 points. Grade "3" .

- The topic is partially disclosed, the information on it is incomplete. The absence of a well-defined thought.

- Poor knowledge of the musical-terminological thesaurus was revealed (errors in terminology).

- Some theoretical provisions are supported by practical examples.

- There are errors in the exercises.

- Additional questions answered but not complete.

- Many of the above criteria (3-4) are not met.

Thus, an incomplete amount of theoretical knowledge, gaps in the assimilation of certain topics were revealed.

0-39 points. Grade "2" .

- Topic not resolved.

- Poor knowledge of the musical-terminological thesaurus (ignorance of terminology, gross errors were made).

- There are no practical examples confirming the theoretical positions.

- Mistakes were made in most of the exercises.

- The student did not answer additional questions.

Thus, significant gaps in the assimilation of the topic were identified.

Assessment criteria for sight reading:

80-100 points. Grade "5" .

- When reading from a sheet, a confident modal orientation was revealed.

- Example sung with pure intonation.

- Example performed exactly rhythmically, at the indicated tempo.

- Example performed at the indicated tempo.

- Meaningful phrasing reveals students' understanding of the musical form of the example.

55-79 points. Grade "4" .

- When reading from a sheet as a whole, modal orientation was revealed.

- Minor intonation errors (3-4).

- Some "roughness" in the performance of rhythmic figures.

- The tempo is slightly different from the specified one.

- Phrasing is not always correctly built.

40-54 points. Grade "3" .

- Weak fret orientation.

- Several (5-6) intonation errors were made.

- Several (5-6) rhythmic errors were made.

- The tempo differs from the one specified in the pattern (significantly slowed down).

- Phrasing is not always correct.

0-39 points. Grade "2" .

- Very weak fret orientation.

- Intonation needs constant correction.

- A large number of rhythmic errors were made.

- The tempo is significantly different from the one specified in the pattern.

- The phrasing is incorrect, there is no understanding of the form of the example.

Evaluation criteria for performing intonation exercises:

80-100 points. Grade "5" .

- Mode steps, scales are intoned cleanly.

- All intervals are sung cleanly.

- All chords are sung clean.

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