Basic shapes preschool

Teaching Basic Shapes to Kids In an Interesting Way


Table of Contents

1. Introduction
2. Why is teaching shapes so important?
3. What are the different types of shapes for kids?
4. How to teach kids with the help of games and activities
5. Conclusion
6. About Cuemath
7. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
8. External References



Kids have dynamic learning capabilities that are enhanced by their observation skills. However, parents need to take tiny steps while teaching preschool kids. Basic shapes and colors impact children. They try to understand their surroundings by looking at the different objects around them. All kinds of objects and structures help kids in learning shapes. As a parent one should introduce different shapes for kids at an early age. There are various shapes activities for kindergarten that can help kids learn and understand basic shapes.


Shapes for Kids

Here is a downloadable PDF that lists out various shapes for kids. Teaching basic shapes for kids helps them understand their own observations. Different types of shapes for kids. Click on the download button to explore them. 


Why is teaching shapes important?

Basic shapes for kids are being taught at every preschool today. It is important to understand the necessity of shaping activities for kindergarten kids. Few ways in which kids are impacted by basic shapes are:

  1. Visual Information
  2. Sign and symbols
  3. Alphabets and numbers
  4. Mathematical concepts
  5. Categorization and comparison 
  6. Problem-solving
  7. Symmetry


  1. Kids Learn how to organize visual information

Children observe their surroundings very keenly and encounter different shapes every single day. Teaching basic shapes for kids helps them understand their own observations. The visual information they gather comprises compound shapes that are formed by a combination of basic shapes. Shapes’ names for kids enable them to identify the basic shapes in compound shapes. For instance, when a child looks at a car it appears to be a rectangular box. However, children will learn to identify the compound shapes in a car once they learn basic shapes. 


  1. Helps to teach signs and symbols

Symbols are very important for kids. But it will take some time for kids to get used to it. Kids take some time before they can actually name the shapes they see. However, this does not indicate that the kid is unable to comprehend basic shapes. Signs on the other hand impart certain information and details. Basic shapes for kids help them store information in their minds. Kids are usually 5 to 6 years old when they start following signs and symbols



  1. Help kids identify different alphabets and numbers

Toddlers may get confused among all the alphabets they see. As parents, it can be challenging to teach various letters and numbers. Kids tend to mix up similar-shaped letters like “b” and “d”. Patience is important while correcting these mistakes. Learning shapes for kids help them differentiate among the letters. Therefore all the preschools cover learning shapes for kids before moving into Alphabets and numbers.


  1. Basic mathematical concepts can be taught

Once a child is comfortable identifying shapes for his /her own, they can start learning simple mathematical operations like addition and subtraction. It is always easier to teach addition than subtraction. Therefore we advise parents to start teaching addition and then venture into subtraction. Basic shapes for kids include balls, matchboxes, dice, etc. So you can pick the object of your choice and start teaching simple maths to your kids.


  1. Categorization and comparison

Facial recognition and navigation skills are swiftly developed among kids who can categorize and compare various shapes. As kids learn to differentiate shapes, they understand facial features and their differences. It is also important to note that different shapes for kids imply different geographical locations or features. Have you noticed, in kids’ drawing- mountains and hills are always triangles and houses have a square or rectangle structure with a triangular roof? We do suggest you take a look and understand how kids observe and compare the shapes around them.


  1. Problem-solving

Brain development and thinking skills are really important for a kid in preschool or kindergarten. Shapes and colors are directly responsible for brain development. Kids analyze structures and start with 2-D mental mapping and then gradually, as the year progresses, they start 3-D mapping. These mental mapping of shapes plays a crucial role in the development of problem-solving abilities in children.


  1. Symmetry

Kids love to play around the parks or fields. This is important for the development of their motor skills. However, kids tend to lose their balance more often than adults. Growing up, we all had cuts and bruises on our knees Over the years these injuries started disappearing even when sports activities became more rigorous. This happens when kids are unable to understand the basic concept of balance and center of gravity. Now even though terms like the center of gravity feel fancy for kids, it is important to teach symmetry with the help of basic shapes for kids. This will help them understand how to position themselves and develop motor skills. 


What are the different types of shapes for kids?

Different shapes for kids are available ranging from basic shapes to compound shapes. Basic shapes are simple shapes that can not be broken down into simpler shapes by general conventions, examples include square, circle, triangle, etc. Compound shapes can be split into simpler shapes, examples include Arrows, Starts, etc. Let us go through a few shapes to understand better. 



Number of Sides



3 Sides

Mountains and Hills are Triangle in shape


4 Sides

Small houses or huts are square in shape


4 Sides 

Cars and buses are rectangle in shape


No Sides

Wheels and Balls are circle in shape


7 Sides

Signs boards have an arrow shape


10 Sides

Starfish and star anise are star-shaped


4 Sides

Kites and crystals have diamond shape


No Sides

Strawberries are heart-shaped.


  1. Basic Shapes for kids

Shapes like squares, triangles, circles, and rectangles are taught first to kids. Once a child learns how to categorize and name these shapes, they are taught more complex shapes. However, it suggested that ample time is spent on basic shapes for kids. This is because all the shapes are taught at a later stage depending upon the concepts developed during learning basic shapes for kids. It may require a little while for kids to pick up the concept but we suggest parents be patient.


  1. Advanced Shapes for kids

Once a child is familiar with basic shapes he/she is ready to learn advanced shapes for kids. These shapes include arrows, stars, and hearts. Advanced shapes do not include 3-D structures in preschool as it may confuse them. Kids with a clear conception of basic shapes will be able to ace this topic quickly. 


How to teach shapes to kids with the help of games and activities?

Till now, we saw how important basic shapes can be for a child's brain development. Teaching shapes can be cumbersome without activities as children find it difficult to comprehend something that can not be observed. Activities and games will help kids learn while having fun.

Now, we will look into a few activities and games to help your child play and learn. 

  1. Flashcard shapes for kids

Flashcards are a really fun and interactive tool while teaching kids. They can be purchased in stores or prepared by hand. You can draw different shapes on cards made out of thick paper to prepare a set of flashcards. Use these cards to play with your child. Ask your kid to pick up a card and name the shape drawn on the card. Maintain a scoreboard and let them beat their own high scores.


  1. Shapes for kids chart

Bright and colorful shape names for kid's charts are available in the market. To prepare them at home, you need to draw shapes and write down their names. Colorful shapes are easier to remember for kids. Ask your kids to look at the beautiful chart every day in the morning before going to preschool or kindergarten. 


  1. Shapes hunt

Just like a treasure hunt, shapes hunting is fun and easy for preschoolers. Use a set of flashcards with different shapes on them. Ask your kid to pick up one card and identify the shape and once he or she has identified the shape, ask them to find an object of the same shape around the house. This will keep the kids engaged and help them relate basic shapes to their surroundings.


  1. Puzzle games

Two types of puzzles are available for kids to learn basic shapes. The first one contains pieces of brightly colored basic shapes for kids. These shapes need to be fitted onboard with hollows similar to the shapes. These boards with pieces of basic shape for kids are available in preschool supply shops and toy shops.

The second type is a conventional puzzle with bigger pieces. Once a child is proficient in basic shapes for kids they can try to join the pieces of a picture together.

We suggest you go for basic puzzles with pictures of fruits and flowers to keep the level easy for your child.  



In the former section, we came across the various benefits of teaching basic shapes for kids. It is one of the most important topics covered in the kindergarten and preschool syllabus. Even though your child may be learning shapes for kids in school, it is suggested that parents help them out with shapes games for kids. This is because the identification of shapes and naming shapes are two different objectives. Kids tend to forget shape names.

Start teaching basic shapes to your child and try to relate them with the objects around you. This will help kids relate the concept of basic shapes with their surroundings. We suggest parents start with basic shapes and gradually move into advanced shapes. Spend more time on basic shapes for kids to build the foundation for advanced shapes. 


About Cuemath 

Cuemath, a student-friendly mathematics and coding platform, conducts regular Online Live Classes for academics and skill-development, and their Mental Math App, on both iOS and Android, is a one-stop solution for kids to develop multiple skills. Understand the Cuemath Fee structure and sign up for a free trial.


Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)


What is the difference between regular and irregular shapes?
  • Regular Shapes are those which have equal sides as well as equal angles. Irregular Shapes are just the opposite,i.e, their angles and sides vary.
  • Examples of Regular Shapes are Square, Circle, Equilateral Triangle, etc.
  • Examples of Irregular Shapes are Rectangle, Heart, Right-angled triangle, etc.

What are the different types of 3D Shapes that are formed using rectangles and circles?
  • Cylinder - Circles
  • Cuboid - Rectangles
  • Cube - Squares
  • Pyramid - Rectangles and Circles
  • Tetrahedron - Triangles

What are the three different types of shapes?
  • Geometric: These are simple shapes like rectangle, square, triangle, etc. which are geometric in nature. They form the basis of other types of shapes.
  • Organic: These shapes are curvier in nature and have a natural feel to them (for example, the shape made after the ink is spilled on a paper is of organic type). These are more soothing and relaxing to the eyes.
  • Abstract: These shapes are complex in nature and are mostly used in graphics designing purposes. They are aesthetically beautiful but are not naturally found.

Free Shapes Preschool Lesson Plans

In order to be ready for kindergarten, preschoolers benefit from learning their shapes. Here are 16+ shape activities for preschoolers that are already formatted into weekly lesson plans. Just download them from the end of this post.

Already-Planned-For-You Shape Activities for Preschoolers

Get your free preschool lesson plans at the end of this post.

Learning shapes is the most basic skill within the geometry discipline of math, so it makes sense that we spend some time teaching our preschoolers about shapes.

But there’s more to shapes than just their names. These preschool shape activities will take you beyond just memorizing shape names.

FAQ About How to Teach Shapes to Preschoolers

The following are the most frequently asked questions about how to teach shapes to preschoolers and toddlers.

How do you teach preschoolers about shapes?

Like many early childhood concepts, the more variety and the more hands-on activities you can offer the better your preschooler or toddler will learn. Make a shapes sensory bin. Read books about shapes. Hide shapes around the house and seek them out. Cut out shapes from construction paper and glue them together to make artwork. These are a few examples of how to teach shapes to preschoolers.

What shapes should preschoolers know?

By the time a preschooler is bound for kindergarten, they should be able identify the following shapes:

~ circle
~ square
~ triangle
~ rectangle
~ oval
~ rhombus
~ heart
~ star

You can find this and more in my Toddler & Preschool Assessment & Portfolio Pack.

Why teach shapes in preschool?

Teaching shapes to your preschooler is more than just teaching them to name them. Learning shapes helps children identify and organize visual information. Learning shapes also helps children understand other signs and symbols, such as street signs or icons on a computer app.

Get free preschool lesson plans at the end of this post.

Hands-on Preschool Shape Activities

These shape activities are available in a download at the end of this post. They offer 16+ activities to complete over the course of a week and are a part of my Learn At Home Preschool Lesson Plans.

To see more of my free Learn At Home Preschool Lesson Plans, just click below.

>>> Learn At Home Preschool Lesson Plans Collection <<<

Literacy Activities for a Shapes Theme

Building Letters & Shapes Using Pipe Cleaners – Did you know that learning shapes help children recognize letters? Letters are very similar to shapes.  The letter V is a triangle missing a side, and the letter O is just a circle. Using pipe cleaners, invite your preschooler to build some basic shapes. Can you turn any of those shapes into a letter or number with a quick tweak? What new letters/numbers can you make?

Shapes and Letters Collage – Using an old magazine or two, invite your preschooler to cut out all different kinds of shapes. While looking for shapes, encourage them to look in the magazine for the letters in their names. Look for favorite toys or foods, too! Cut everything out and assemble on a collage. Invite your preschooler to talk about their collage and name all the items they picked out. Then display it proudly!

Don’t Forget Picture Books About Shapes

When I first started teaching, there weren’t many picture books to help teach shapes to preschoolers. But things have changed! Here is a book list featuring my favorite shape books to read to my preschoolers.

Math and Science Activities for a Shapes Theme

Geometry Shape Train – Help your preschooler learn about the different properties of shapes by manipulating them to fit into a specific shape or design on paper. This activity develops spatial awareness and shape recognition. Print the train template and the shapes, and match the shapes to fill the train! Your growing engineer will love this activity!

Shape Activities with Movement – Grab some painters tape and make a few large shapes on the floor. Encourage your preschooler to trace the shape with their hand (and foot!) and hop, dance, or slide across the shape. This is a good activity for rainy days, too.

Which Shape is the Strongest? – Fold three pieces of construction paper into differently-shaped tubes. Fold one tube into a triangle, one into a square, and the other into a cylinder. Test which tube is the strongest when putting various items with a similar weight on top.

Playful Learning Activities for a Shapes Theme

Body Shapes – What shapes can you make with your body? Invite your preschooler to lie on the floor and try to make different shapes. What if you worked with a sibling or friend? What shapes can you make then? Take pictures of your preschooler and show them the shapes they made.

Mirror, Mirror Game – Face your preschooler and have them attempt to copy all your movements. Be silly! Run in place! Act like a monkey! Then switch roles and copy your preschooler. Can you make shapes with your body or hands? Challenge your preschooler to name “new shapes” they might create with their bodies while you copy them.

Sock Basketball – Help with the laundry by tossing clothes into the basket. Roll up clothes into a ball (or sphere) and toss them into the laundry basket. Two points for making it in on the first try! Make it into a fun game and gather all the laundry from around the house to be a big helper.

Download your free shape activities for preschooler at the end of this post.

Social-Emotional Activities for a Shapes Theme

Kid Yoga – Devoting time to stretch, move, and center our bodies is great for people of all ages! Go to YouTube and watch the video Kids Yoga Alphabet. Join in with the instructor and encourage your preschooler to practice some of the alphabet shape movements. If they are hesitant, allow them to watch and begin when they are ready. Encourage taking deep breaths, trying to be calm and centered, and model making mistakes as you try different poses. Keep it fun and engaging!

Drawing Confidence – Go to YouTube and listen to the book A Drawing Game by Anitha Murthy. After listening, invite your preschooler to do just like the young girl in the book and think of the shapes when she intends to draw something. As children get older, they often struggle with their drawing not matching the idea in their head or get frustrated when it doesn’t come out as they had hoped. Encouraging your preschooler to always think of the shapes when drawing will help them feel confident and like a true artist!

Just Plain Fun Activities for a Shapes Theme

Shape Flower Craft – This fun craft allows your preschooler to get creative with shapes and colors. Cut out various shapes from construction paper…the more the better! Challenge your preschooler to use the shapes to make various flowers. How many different designs can they come up with? If you have a preschool class, make an entire flower garden of shapes to hang on the wall!

Shape Pizza Craft – Kids love pizza! So why not make a shape pizza using construction paper? Invite your preschooler to draw various shapes on colored paper that represent the toppings. Circles for pepperoni, rectangles for cheese, triangles for pineapples…the options are endless! Glue them all down on a large circle for your pizza crust and have fun being a pizza chef! This is also a great activity to add to your Food and Nutrition Theme.

Playdough Shapes – Get creative with playdough shapes! Make houses, pizza, cakes, cars, and more. What shapes are used to make these different items?

Our Favorite Toys to Teach Shapes

You don’t need specialty toys or manipulatives to be an effective teacher, but if you’re looking for some shape manipulatives, these are some of the most used in my own classroom.

Safe Online Activities for a Shapes Theme

Online Story – Go to YouTube and listen to the book Round is a Tortilla: A Book of Shapes by Roseanne Thong. As you are listening, review any unknown words with your preschooler. Encourage your preschooler to answer the questions on each page as you read to make this book even more interactive.

Learn Shapes with Pete the Kitty – Follow along with our favorite Pete the Kitty and learn shapes and colors! And who doesn’t love Pete the Cat?!

Shapes are Everywhere Song – This song offers a great way to help your preschooler identify the names of the shapes, as well as where we see these shapes in our everyday lives.

Get Your Free Preschool Shape Activities Here

These shape activities ate written up as lesson plans to be completed in about a week’s time, but you can use them any time of year! Grab your free Learn At Home Preschool Lesson Plans by clicking the image below.

You Might Also Like These Lesson Plans

This Shapes Preschool Math Unit includes everything you need to teach beginning geometry and shapes in preschool math!

It gives you the lesson plans and the centers, as well as smaller daily math activities to keep your students learning. Not only will your preschoolers learn how to identify basic shapes, but they will also develop spatial awareness skills. From matching and sorting to graphing shapes and tracing, your preschooler will gain a strong foundation in geometry with these lesson plans.

With four complete weeks of lesson plans and over 36 hands-on activities, your preschooler will love math, too!

Sarah Punkoney, MAT

I’m Sarah, an educator turned stay-at-home-mama of five! I’m the owner and creator of Stay At Home Educator, a website about intentional teaching and purposeful learning in the early childhood years. I’ve taught a range of levels, from preschool to college and a little bit of everything in between. Right now my focus is teaching my children and running a preschool from my home. Credentials include: Bachelors in Art, Masters in Curriculum and Instruction.

New forms of preschool education at the present stage

Content of the article

1. Tasks of modern forms of preschool education

2. Types of new forms of preschool education

Definition 1

Preschool education in Russia is a system of education, training and development and health improvement children of preschool age, i. e. children from two months to seven years of age.

Tasks of modern forms of preschool education

Preschool education services are provided in accordance with Federal Law No..12.2012 and other legal documents in the field of preschool education.

The modern system of preschool education, regardless of the form of implementation, provides services aimed at:

  1. Ensuring the protection and preservation of the health of preschool children, the implementation of their full and comprehensive development through the organization of various activities.
  2. Ensuring that each child reaches the necessary level of development, capable of ensuring his physical and psychological readiness for learning for school.
  3. Creation of equal conditions for education, upbringing and development for all children of preschool age.
  4. Focus on fruitful interaction of the educational institution with the family of the pupil on the implementation of the full development of children.
  5. Implementation of continuity with the main general education programs of primary general education.

Note 1

The orientation and forms of variable preschool education at the present stage depend on the age and social characteristics of pupils.

The priority problems of the domestic system of preschool education, in accordance with the "Concept of long-term socio-economic development of the Russian Federation until 2020", are:

  1. Introduction of modern innovative technologies of education and training into the educational process of preschool educational institutions.
  2. Implementation of competitive identification and subsequent support of leaders who implement relevant approaches to the education and upbringing of preschool children.
  3. Solving personnel problems in the system of preschool education.
  4. Renovation of the organizational and economic mechanisms of the modern education system.
  5. Expanding and increasing the diversity and flexibility of the forms of delivery of services in the preschool education system.
  6. Implementation of high-quality pre-school training for children entering the first grade.
  7. Maximizing the potential of the family in the upbringing of children.

In order to ensure and guarantee the observance of the rights to provide each child of preschool age with free access to preschool education, at present, by Decree of the President of the Russian Federation, two types of preschool educational institutions are organized:

  1. Preschool educational organizations that carry out educational activities on the basis of educational standards and programs of preschool education.
  2. Preschool educational organizations that implement educational activities in accordance with the requirements that exceed the state educational standard in one or more areas of its activity.

Pre-school education services are conditionally divided into two components:

  1. Implementation of the main educational program of preschool education.
  2. Care and supervision of preschool children.

In addition, pre-school education services are differentiated:

  • Age groups (younger, middle, older, preparatory)
  • By the duration of the service (full day, shortened day, extended day, round-the-clock stay, etc.)
  • By direction (compensatory, general education, correctional, health-improving, etc.)

Types of new forms of preschool education

Main types of new forms of preschool education at the present stage: up to 3 years, through modern methods of organizing active gaming activities. The purpose of the CIPR: the implementation of the preparation of young children for admission to the preschool educational institution.

  • Early Intervention Service - available for children aged 2 months and over. up to 4 years old, who have various developmental disabilities and do not attend preschool educational institutions for various reasons. The activities of the Service are carried out on the basis of an interdepartmental approach, which includes technologies and methods of psychological, pedagogical and medical and social assistance to children of early preschool age at risk of developmental disorders. The purpose of the Service is to provide organized specialized support to a family with a child with identified disabilities or at risk of a possible developmental disability.
  • Lekoteka - aimed at providing psychological and pedagogical support for children aged 2 months. up to 7 years old, with various developmental disorders, against which children have problems in socialization and adaptation to the conditions of education in educational institutions. The goal of the library is to provide organized assistance to parents who have children with various types of deviations in socialization, the comprehensive development of children and their preparation for schooling.
  • Family Kindergarten - organized within a large family, where one of the parents acts as an educator. Children from the age of 2 months are admitted to the family kindergarten. up to 7 years old. This kindergarten is attached to the preschool educational institution, which oversees its activities.
  • Advisory point - organized for parents whose children do not attend preschool educational institutions, in order to provide them with the necessary advice in the field of education, training and development of preschool children.
  • Short-stay groups - organized at the preschool educational institution, children attend kindergarten part-time. Implement educational programs of preschool education.
  • Expert community Author24

    Author of this article Article last updated: 02.09.2022

    Variable forms of preschool education

    Definition 1

    Variable forms of preschool education are forms created to expand the coverage of children by the preschool education system and create equal starting opportunities for all children upon entering school.

    Significance of variable forms of preschool education

    Note 1

    Currently, the leading goal of the domestic social policy in the field of preschool education (hereinafter PE) is to guarantee the realization of the rights of every child to receive affordable and high-quality preschool education.

    This goal is achieved through the development of the following priority areas:

    1. Ensuring the availability of DL through the development of a variety of variable forms.
    2. Development of such types of EC as inclusive, integrative and special, in order to ensure the availability of EC for children with various types of developmental disabilities, disabilities, and special educational needs.
    3. Providing psychological and pedagogical support to families, providing the necessary advisory pedagogical assistance to families raising children.

    Variable forms of distance education are commonly understood as:

    • Modern educational models that are aimed at meeting the needs of the population in the services of distance education, improving the quality of services provided, creating the conditions necessary for the development of the private sector of preschool education, and supporting family education.
    • Structural subdivisions of state educational institutions implementing educational programs for preschool children from two months to seven years of age.

    Note 2

    Modern variable forms of distance learning provide pupils with the opportunity to stay in preschool educational institutions with different daily routines, depending on the development of children, health status and individual needs.

    Types of variable forms of preschool education

    The main variable forms of preschool education are:

    1. Groups of short stay organized in preschool educational institutions.
    2. Gaming Support Centers.
    3. Advisory points.
    4. Early Intervention Services.
    5. Legkoteki.
    6. Family kindergartens organized by families at home.

    One of the most popular and demanded groups are short-stay groups at preschool educational institutions.

    Short stay group is one of the variant forms of preschool education, which is a structural subdivision of the preschool educational institution that implements state educational standards and programs of preschool education.

    These groups are organized for children aged 2 months to 7 years.

    The purpose of the short stay group: to ensure the full and comprehensive development of preschool children, the formation of the necessary skills for their subsequent schooling, as well as to provide the necessary advice to parents (legal representatives) of pupils.

    The main tasks of short stay groups:

    1. Providing the necessary assistance to preschool children in successful socialization through the organization of play activities.
    2. Development and implementation of individual educational programs for preschool education.
    3. Psychological and pedagogical support for preschool children.
    4. Provision of necessary advisory and educational assistance to parents (legal representatives) of pupils.
    5. Organization of a developing educational environment and gaming activities.

    Advisory points is one of the variant forms of preschool organized for children aged from 1 to 7 years who are brought up in a family environment.

    The purpose of the consultation point is to ensure and maintain the unity and continuity of social and family education, provide the necessary psychological and pedagogical assistance to parents, support the comprehensive and full development of the personality of children who do not have to attend preschool educational institutions.

    The main tasks of the advisory centers:

    1. Providing parents with the necessary advice on the upbringing, education and development of preschool children.
    2. Providing the necessary assistance in matters of socialization of preschool children.
    3. Comprehensive prevention of various deviations in the mental, physical and social development of children.
    4. Providing comprehensive assistance to parents and children in ensuring equal starting conditions for everyone to enter school, organizing interaction between parents and state educational institutions.

    Family Kindergarten is a variable form of pre-school education organized for the purpose of the comprehensive development of preschool children, focused on an individual approach to education, expanding forms of care and supervision for children with health and developmental problems, as well as to support large families parents and providing them with a job.

    Family kindergarten is organized directly in the family, where one of the parents acts as an educator.

    Early Intervention Service is a form of variable preschool organized for preschool children with certain developmental disabilities who do not attend educational institutions.

    The purpose of the early intervention service is to provide the necessary psychological and pedagogical assistance to parents who have children with identified developmental disabilities.

    The main tasks of the early intervention service:

    1. Conducting psychological and pedagogical examination of children.
    2. Organization of complex correctional and developmental work with children.
    3. Implementation of work on the socialization, adaptation and integration of children with developmental disabilities.

    Lekoteka is a variable form of preschool education, organized to organize social support for preschool children with various developmental disabilities, as well as to form the necessary prerequisites for subsequent successful activities.

    Learn more