Letter sound association

1. Letter Sound Association | Limetree Literacy Education

Introducing the sounds

In Step 1, these sounds are introduced:

Why introduce them in this order?

This order ensures that words can be formed and read early on.

The first six sounds - s a t i p n - are often referred to as satpin. They are easier to distinguish from each other than other sounds and you can create a large number of words using just these sounds. Give it a go! Remember, only use the sounds s, a, t, i, p & n (hint: if you put the a & i together you will have a different sound /ai/). You can use the sounds more than once in each word. Challenge yourself to move beyond 3 letter words like, pit/sat/nap. Can you think of four letter words, five letters words, words with more than 5 letters? Record your words in the comment box below.

You might notice that digraphs are introduced early. It's important to use the correct language when introducing digraphs. "A digraph is when two letters represent one sound."

Pace is important!

It is recommended that you introduce one sound per day. Each day, introduce the next sound and practice/review all of the previous sounds that have been introduced. This ensures students continually hear all of the sounds and practice blending and segmenting using a wide range of sounds (the range gets wider every day!). See the lessons on blending and segmenting for more information about this! You use this page in the Interactive Whiteboard program for daily practice of the sounds.

As you introduce a new sound, present a variety of words to students to practice identifying the sound and blending and segmenting using that sound combined with other sounds already taught. Control these words, so that the only sounds in the words are sounds that have already been covered. The Jolly Phonics Word Bank lists a whole range of words for this purpose.

The Jolly Phonics Word Book is very handy for this!

Using the Interactive Whiteboard to introduce to letter/s and sound

The Interactive Whiteboard program contains a section for each sound in Step 1. When you open the sound for the day, you can start introducing students to the story. This might include:

  • discussing what they see in the image (as above)
  • getting students to practice saying the sound
  • talking about the sound you are introducing - can students see anything that has that sound in it?
  • use the spotlight tool to focus on the letter (more about the tools in the Interactive Whiteboard lesson)
  • play the story for students to listen to
  • listen to the song and jingle

Introduce the action

The actions are a fantastic and easy way to bring the multi sensory aspect into your Jolly Phonics lessons. Combine introducing the action with the song for each sound (available on the interactive whiteboard program, or on the Jolly Songs CD).

The full list of actions are included in the file section at the endof this lesson.

Building engagement when introducing the letter/sound association.

Our aim here is to ensure that students are thinking about the sound when they see the letter and, thinking about the letter when they hear the sound. They will need lots of opportunities to ensure this becomes automatic.

Try some of these ideas to build engagement with this skill:

Write the letters on any surface - the teacher or another student say a sound and the student/s identify the letter associated with that sound. Here's a few teachers have made:

Spin the wheel, say the sound it lands on. This class were looking at alternatives, however this can be easily adjusted to show only the sounds and letters you have covered! Thanks Poh Keng for this idea!

In the activity below, students choose a picture from the pile, said a word associated with the picture (what it is) to see if they could hear a targeted sound. If they could hear it, they placed that picture into the tin with the tick. If not, they placed the picture in the tin with the cross. Afterwards, the teacher could check the tins to see if the student was able to identify the targeted sound.

To increase the challenge, a range of sounds can be used to label the tins, like this:

Anything that asks the student to match the letter to the sound will work! Be as creative as you can! The template below provides another way to do this.

Literacy Instruction for Individuals with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Down Syndrome, and Other Disabilities

What are letter-sound correspondences?

Letter-sound correspondences involve knowledge of

  • the sounds represented by the letters of the alphabet
  • the letters used to represent the sounds


Why is knowledge of letter-sound correspondences important?

Knowledge of letter-sound correspondences is essential in reading and writing

  • In order to read a word:
    • the learner must recognize the letters in the word and associate each letter with its sound
  • In order to write or type a word:
    • the learner must break the word into its component sounds and know the letters that represent these sounds.

Knowledge of letter-sound correspondences and phonological awareness skills are the basic building blocks of literacy learning.

These skills are strong predictors of how well students learn to read.


What sequence should be used to teach letter-sound correspondence?

Letter-sound correspondences should be taught one at a time.  As soon as the learner acquires one letter sound correspondence, introduce a new one.

We suggest teaching the letters and sounds in this sequence

  • a, m, t, p, o, n, c, d, u, s, g, h, i, f, b, l, e, r, w, k, x, v, y, z, j, q

This sequence was designed to help learners start reading as soon as possible

  • Letters that occur frequently in simple words (e.g., a, m, t) are taught first.
  • Letters that look similar and have similar sounds (b and d) are separated in the instructional sequence to avoid confusion.
  • Short vowels are taught before long vowels.
  • Lower case letters are taught first since these occur more frequently than upper case letters.

The sequence is intended as a guideline. Modify the sequence as required to accommodate the learner’s

  • prior knowledge
  • interests
  • hearing


Is it appropriate to teach letter names as well as letter sounds?

Start by teaching the sounds of the letters, not their names.  Knowing the names of letters is not necessary to read or write.  Knowledge of letter names can interfere with successful decoding.

  • For example, the learner looks at a word and thinks of the names of the letters instead of the sounds.


Sample goal for instruction in letter-sound correspondences

The learner will

  • listen to a target sound presented orally
  • identify the letter that represents the sound
  • select the appropriate letter from a group of letter cards, an alphabet board, or a keyboard with at least 80% accuracy


Instructional Task

Here is an example of instruction to teach letter-sound correspondences

  • The instructor
    • introduces the new letter and its sound
    • shows a card with the letter m and says the sound “mmmm”

After practice with this letter sound, the instructor provides review

  • The instructor
    • says a letter sound
  • The learner
    • listens to the sound
    • looks at each of the letters provided as response options
    • selects the correct letter
      • from a group of letter cards,
      • from an alphabet board, or
      • from a keyboard.


Instructional Materials

Various materials can be used to teach letter-sound correspondences

  • cards with lower case letters
  • an alphabet board that includes lower case letters
  • a keyboard adapted to include lower case letters

Here is an example of an adapted keyboard that might be used for instruction once a student knows many of the letter-sound correspondences.

The learner must

  • listen to the target sound – “mmmm”
  • select the letter – m – from the keyboard


Instructional Procedure

The instructor teaches letter-sound correspondences using these procedures:

  • Model
    • The instructor demonstrates the letter-sound correspondence for the learner.
  • Guided practice
    • The instructor provides scaffolding support or prompting to help the learner match the letter and sound correctly.
    • The instructor gradually fades this support as the learner develops competence.
  • Independent practice
    • The learner listens to the target sound and selects the letter independently.
    • The instructor monitors the learner’s responses and provides appropriate feedback.


Student Example

Krista is 8 years old in this video

  • Krista has multiple challenges, including a hearing impairment, a visual impairment, and a motor impairment. She also has a tracheostomy.
  • We started to work with Krista when she was 8 years old. At that time, she was in a special education class at school and was not receiving literacy instruction.
  • She uses sign approximations to communicate with others. She also uses a computer with speech output (a Mercury with Speaking Dynamically Pro software). Because of her hearing impairment, she does best when she receives augmented input (sign and speech).
  • This video was taken after 3 weeks of instruction.
  • Krista is learning letter-sound correspondences. So far she has been introduced to the letter sounds for m and b
    • Janice is providing instruction; Marissa, a graduate student at Penn State, is learning about literacy instruction and helping to collect data; and Krista’s parents and nurse are watching the session, excited about her progress.
    • Janice
      • provides an array of letter cards as response options
      • says one of the target letter sounds
    • Krista
      • listens to the sound
      • points to the letter that makes the target sound
  • After 3 weeks (approximately 3 hours) of instruction, Krista has successfully learned the letter sounds – m and b.
  • Over the next months, we introduced the other letter sounds gradually. We also worked on recognition of high interest sight words, decoding skills, and shared reading activities.
  • Krista made excellent progress in all activities. Click to learn more about Krista’s success learning literacy skills despite the many challenges she faced.



There are a wide range of fonts. These fonts use different forms of letters, especially the letter a.

  • Initially use a consistent font in all instructional materials
  • Later, as the learner develops competence, introduce variations in font.


Last Updated: February 19, 2019

How to use abbreviations correctly? - "Gramota.ru" - reference and information Internet portal "Russian language"


How to use abbreviations correctly?

What is the difference between an abbreviation and an abbreviation?

The word abbreviation is translated into Russian from Italian as 'abbreviation' (abbreviatura, from Latin brevis 'short'), from the 18th century to the beginning of the 20th century this word was used in its original, etymological meaning, as evidenced, for example, interpretation of this word in Florenty Pavlenkov's dictionary: abbreviation - 'abbreviation in writing and printing' (Dictionary of foreign words included in the Russian language. 1907). However, today only nouns formed from truncated segments of words ( glavbukh, glavkom, permanent representative, Rospechat ), from the initial sounds of several words (MIA, ITAR-TASS, MKAD) or from the names of their initial letters (FSB, MVD, RSL) are called abbreviations. ).

How are words shortened?

There are such ways of abbreviating words: abbreviation, graphic abbreviation and are truncations of the word .

Abbreviation is the addition of two or more words and their subsequent reduction: unified + state + exam = USE; chief + accountant = chief accountant . The words obtained as a result of abbreviation are called abbreviations or compound words .

Graphic abbreviation is a way of shortening words. It is used to save time that should be spent on writing and space on the sheet. With graphic abbreviation, letters or syllables are omitted from the word (the omission is indicated by a dot, dash or slash). The word is written briefly, but pronounced in full : kg - kilogram; pr-in - production; and. about. - acting; billion - billion; Rostov n / a - Rostov-on-Don .

Truncation is the formation of a new word by discarding the final part of the original word. Truncated words are often used in colloquial speech: specialist - specialist, fan - fan, teacher - teacher.

How are abbreviations formed?

The following types of abbreviations are distinguished according to the method of formation:

  • abbreviations formed from the initial letters of each word (initial abbreviations): USE - Unified State Exam; RZD - Russian Railways ; OSAGO - compulsory motor third party liability insurance .

  • abbreviations formed from a combination of the initial parts of words: commander in chief, Ministry of Health;

  • mixed type abbreviations consisting of both initial parts of words and initial letters: social security, KAMAZ, GLONASS;

  • abbreviations consisting of a combination of the initial part of the word with the whole word: office equipment, Sberbank, Rospechat; head of department, platoon commander, manager, Ministry of Education and Science;

  • abbreviations consisting of a combination of the beginning of the first word with the beginning and end of the second or only with the end of the second: moped (motorcycle-bicycle), destroyer (destroyer).

How are the abbreviations pronounced?

Difficulties arise with the pronunciation of initial abbreviations (formed from the initial letters of each word). Such abbreviations can be read by letter names, by syllables, as well as in a mixed way.

  • If the initial abbreviation includes only letters denoting consonant sounds, then such an abbreviation is read by the names of its constituent letters: USSR [es-es-es-er], NTV [en-te-ve], ROC [er-pe-tse].

  • If the abbreviation contains letters denoting vowel sounds, then such abbreviations can be read “by syllables”, like ordinary words: [mkhat], USE [je-ge], MAPRYAL [ma-pr'al]. However, if the vowel sound in the abbreviation is final or initial, then the abbreviation is usually read by the names of the letters: MSU [em-ge-u], MDA [em-de-a], UTP [u-te-pe], Computer [e-we-em], ABS [a-be- es]. But: media [media], SKA [ska].

  • Some abbreviations are read partially “by syllables”, partially by the names of letters: traffic police [gi-be-de-de].

  • When pronouncing a number of abbreviations, colloquial names of letters are used: [ne] instead of [en], [se] instead of [es], [fe] instead of [ef], etc.: CNO [es-ne-o], USA [s-e-a], FBI [f-be-er]. Moreover, instead of the name of the letter [el], in abbreviations they always pronounce [el]: ZhZL [zhe-ze-el], NHL [en-ha-el], VLKSM [ve-el-ka-es-em ].

How to pronounce

FRG and USA?

Initially, the abbreviation Germany was read by the names of the letters: [ef-er-ge]. But since the letter Ф in colloquial speech is pronounced as [fe], which is explained by the economy of speech means, in particular by articulation laws (and our “linguistic laziness”, as K. S. Gorbachevich believes), today the pronunciation of the Federal Republic of Germany is fixed as [ fe-er-ge], compare: FSB [fe-es-be] and [ef-es-be].

The abbreviation USA has traditionally been assigned the pronunciation [se-she-a]: it is spelled out, but not as it is customary in the literary language, but as the letters С [es] and Ш [ sha] are called colloquially.

Where to put the accent in the abbreviation?

When pronouncing initial abbreviations , the stress usually falls on the last syllable: USE, GIA, FIFA, EIRC, FANO . If the abbreviation is pronounced by the names of the letters, then this syllable is usually the name of the last letter of the abbreviation: housing and communal services [zhe-ka-ha], microwave [es-ve-che], VDNKh [ve-de-en-ha], OLRS [o-el-er-es].

Stress in foreign language abbreviations that do not have a verbatim interpretation must be checked using a dictionary: NATO, UNESCO .

How to write abbreviations?

Initial abbreviations are written in capital letters: UN, MFA, RF . Dots or spaces between letters are not put, but a space is used between two independently used abbreviations: IRYa RAS, MFA RF.

Words formed from initial abbreviations by adding suffixes are written in lower case: text message (from SMS) , cavalry officer (from KVN) , traffic cop (from GAI) , foreign ministers (from ) (from In other cases, capital letters are preserved: mini-KVN, SMS mailing .

The abbreviation university is traditionally written in lowercase letters. Variant spelling - at the abbreviation ZAGS (registry office) .

Compound words formed from segments of words , are written in lowercase letters: special forces, secretary of state, chief accountant . At the same time, the abbreviated names of institutions and organizations are capitalized if their full name is capitalized: Sberbank, Rospechat, Ministry of Education and Science .

The spelling of mixed abbreviations (formed from combinations of initials and segments of words) should be checked in a dictionary, since their spelling is not uniform: KamAZ, GLONASS, IAEA, social security .

And here you can read about the use of quotes in abbreviations.

How to write foreign language abbreviations?

Foreign abbreviations can be transmitted in the Russian text in Latin (the same as in the source language) and letters of the Russian alphabet. Further - about how to write foreign language abbreviations in Russian.

If the abbreviation reads “syllable by syllable” (like a normal word), then it is written in capital letters: NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) , UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), CERN (European Center for Nuclear Research) , FIFA (International Federation of Football Associations), FIA (International Automobile Federation) 0, 2 FIDE ( 9011 International Chess Federation).

If the abbreviation is read by foreign letter names, then it is written in lowercase letters, while hyphens are used: i-q . Abbreviated proper names start with a capital letter: BBC, CNN, IBM .

Foreign abbreviations can turn into independent common nouns in Russian, which are written in lowercase letters without hyphens: PR (from PR - public relations), eychar (HR - human resources), DJ, VJ, dividend .

How to determine the gender of an abbreviation?

Grammatical difficulties are associated with the definition of the gender of initial abbreviations.

  • Rod letter initial abbreviation (read by the names of the letters) depends on the reference word in the decoding of the abbreviation: Moscow State University (university) accepted new students; ECtHR (court) expressed; CIS (commonwealth) took the initiative; ROC (church) called for an end to bloodshed .

  • Gender of the sound initial abbreviation (read “by syllables”) depends not only on the gender of the reference word, but also on the external phonetic appearance of the abbreviation, more precisely, on its ending. So, if the abbreviation ends in a consonant, then it can agree on the masculine gender, despite the fact that the reference word belongs to the feminine or neuter gender. Moreover, in some cases, agreement on the masculine gender is the only possible one. For example, only the masculine gender of the word university (although institution ) , Ministry of Foreign Affairs (although ministry ) , registry office (although record ). In some cases, fluctuations are observed: for example, MKAD - masculine in colloquial speech, feminine in stylistically neutral contexts. In some cases, agreement on the masculine gender is impossible: hydroelectric power station, thermal power station - nouns are only feminine. The generic affiliation of such abbreviations should be consulted in dictionaries.

  • Genus of the foreign language abbreviation is determined by the key word in Russian decoding: FIFA (federation) made a decision; CERN (center) conducted research. However, in some cases, the external phonetic appearance of the word can influence the generic affiliation. For example, the abbreviation NATO is used as a masculine noun (as a result of the influence of a combination with the words alliance, bloc, treaty ), feminine (according to the key word organization ) and neuter gender (according to phonetic appearance, compare with other words in -O: coat, metro, cinema ). The abbreviation of UNESCO experiences fluctuations in gender (the phonetic appearance suggests the neuter gender, and the reference word organization is feminine).

When should abbreviations be inflected?

Grammatical difficulties associated with declension sound initial abbreviations with a masculine reference word : in MFA or at the Foreign Ministry? In the Moscow Art Theater or in the Moscow Art Theater? Employee of the registry office or registry office? Made according to GOST or according to GOST? CERN Research or CERN ?

"Dictionary of grammatical variants of the Russian language" by L. K. Graudina, V. A. Itskovich and L. P. Katlinskaya (M., 2008) recommends inflecting abbreviations , OMON. Other abbreviations are not inflected in strict business writing. In colloquial speech, declension is possible: traffic jam on the Moscow Ring Road, an employee of the registry office.

When should abbreviations not be used?

Abbreviations and abbreviations should save not only space on the page, but also the reader's time. Therefore, abbreviations in the text are acceptable if the reader does not often have to refer to additional reference sources to decipher them.

  • It is undesirable to use little-known, uncommon abbreviations and abbreviations if the text is addressed to the general reader. It is necessary to distinguish between generally accepted (understandable to the general reader) and special (understandable to specialists) abbreviations and abbreviations.

  • Undesirable abbreviations that coincide in form with others that have a different meaning.

  • Dissonant abbreviations are undesirable.

  • Do not abbreviate the names of historical events: Great Patriotic War (not WWII ).

Where can I find transcripts of abbreviations?

The most complete source on the Internet is the dictionary of abbreviations sokr.ru.

English abbreviations can be found at acronymfinder.com.

Information about the most common abbreviations in the Dictionary of the Russian Language, ed. A.P. Evgenyeva (4th ed., M., 1999): feb-web.ru.

Printed sources:

  • N. N. Novichkov. Dictionary of modern Russian abbreviations and abbreviations. Paris - Moscow, 1995.

  • G. N. Sklyarevskaya. Dictionary of abbreviations of the modern Russian language. M., 2004.

  • L. A. Baranova. Dictionary of abbreviations of foreign origin. M., 2009.

Formation of cognitive UUD at the lessons of the Russian language through association | Russian language and literature

Author: Chevis Marina Gennadievna

Organization: MBOU "Lyceum of Khlevnoe village"

Settlement: Lipetsk region, Khlevensky district, s. Khlevnoe

In our time, the problem of interest in the subject is relevant. The study of the Russian language does not arouse interest among many students. They are also frightened by a lot of voluminous rules that are incomprehensible to them, and a large number of exceptions, inspiring “fear and disgust”. The result with such an attitude to the subject is obvious: the deterioration of literacy. And each of us is looking for ways to solve this problem. Let me share my experience.

K. D. Ushinsky also wrote: “Teach a child some five words unknown to him - he will suffer for a long time and in vain, but connect twenty such words with pictures, and he will learn them on the fly.

This method facilitates memorization and increases the amount of memory by forming artificial associations: FOUND YOUR METHOD OF MEMORIZATION - REMEMBER - FIXED IN MEMORY - REPRODUCED. It is known that already in ancient Greece, people successfully applied the methods of association. And in Rus' it was also used. Its vivid example is the Slavic alphabet. The names of all Cyrillic letters were invented for the purpose of association. This means that since ancient times people have understood that this really facilitates and improves the memorization of information.

Today, I think, we should welcome all the techniques and methods, as long as they bring the appropriate results. For example, T.Ya.Frolova, Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, suggests studying the rules of the Russian language using pictures and rhyming algorithms.

Of course, the tasks of a language teacher include the intellectual development of children, and the development of speech, and the formation of ideas about the language as a system, and much more, but still the minimum program is literacy, written and oral. And in this regard, it seems that it is not so important at what level the topic was realized by a weak student - at the "everyday" or scientific level, the main thing is that it is realized.

In my "pedagogical piggy bank" there are a lot of techniques for easy memorization of material. Students write down such hints in their notebooks, when memorizing this or that rule, they use their associative “magic wand” with pleasure.

Here are some techniques that are popular with my students.

1) Association tables and charts . I consider this method to be the most effective.

2) Associative rhymes - specially composed poetic texts, built according to the laws of rhythm, and illustrations for them, helping to master the spelling of difficult words. Making "rules for yourself" is the key to memorizing . Here is one of them, compiled by a 5th grade student:

They bought me a phone!

Not a smartphone!

And now everyone is calling me.

"Checking" - they say!

3) Method of graphic associations my kids like it more than others. Finding bright unusual associations (pictures) that are connected with memorized information. In order to remember an unchecked vowel interestingly, it is necessary to “revive” the letter, create its “image” in a particular word.

4) Letter-sound association. For example, students often confuse the verbs to put on and put on. I offer them an unusual option for memorization: “We dress Nadezhda - we put on clothes”, i.e. to dress someone, and to put on yourself.

I also use the association technique when writing my presentation . Together with the students, we select drawings that help to write the text without distortion, preserving the storyline.

I think that you have clearly seen that the use of associative technology is necessary: ​​

1) the theory has been put into practice and has its positive results;

2) application is explicable from the point of view of psychological, age characteristics of students;

3) this method found a lively response from the students, contributing to the development of interest in the subject, the activation of their thinking.

Learn more


North Coast Community Services
710 Fraser Street, Prince Rupert, BC V8J 1P9
Ph: 250.627.7166 | Fx: 250.627.7482

© All Rights Reserved | powered by ExpressionEngine