The lowercase alphabet

What Are Lowercase, Uppercase Letters?

Lowercase letter definition: Lowercase letters are all other letters not in uppercase.

Uppercase letter definition: Uppercase letters are letters that represent the beginning of a sentence or a proper noun.

What are Lowercase Letters?

In writing, most letters are lowercase. Lowercase letters are all letters that do not begin a sentence or refer to a proper noun.

English alphabet lowercase letters: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z.

Examples of Lowercase Letters:

  • word
  • The word above uses only lowercase letters.
  • The sentence above has lowercase letters after the first letter of the sentence.
  • This sentence and the one directly above have all lowercase letters except for the “T.”

What are Uppercase Letters?

Uppercase letters are also known as capital letters. Uppercase letters signal to the reader that something is important or significant.

English alphabet uppercase letters: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z.

Examples of Uppercase Letters:

  • Jones
    • This is a proper name, so the first letter of the title and the last name are capitalized
  • Main Street
    • This is a proper noun so the first letter of each word is capitalized

When to Use Uppercase Letters

In English, the first letter of every sentence is capitalized. The uppercase letter signals to the reader that a new sentence is beginning.

Other uses of uppercase letters are detailed below.


All titles are considered proper nouns and require capitalization.


  • Miss Mabry
    • Incorrect: miss mabry
  • Mathers
    • Incorrect: mr. mathers
  • Madam Lockfield
    • Incorrect: madam lockfield
  • Lady Grace
    • Incorrect: lady grace
  • Janks
    • Incorect: mrs. janks


Acronyms are a type of abbreviation. Acronyms are words formed from other letters to make a new word. However, they require capital letters to signal to the reader that those letters stand for something and are not a word alone.


  • NATO
    • North Atlantic Treaty Organization
    • United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund
    • Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus

All Proper Nouns

All proper nouns need to be capitalized.


  • We visited the Bowers Museum on Saturday.
    • Incorrect: We visited the bowers museum on Saturday.
  • I would like to tour the Eiffel Tower.
    • Incorrect: I would like to tour the eiffel tower.
  • Their names are Jake and Suzy.
    • Incorrect: Their names are jake and suzy.

When to Use Lowercase Letters

Use lowercase letters for all letters other than the first in a sentence, provided that there is no required use for uppercase letters in the sentence.


  • Every word in this sentence other than the first word is written in lowercase.
  • The only words in this sentence that require uppercase letters are the proper nouns, London and Paris.

All nouns that are not proper nouns are called common nouns. All common nouns use lowercase letters (unless a common noun begins a sentence).


  • tree
  • dog
  • bird
  • water
  • air
  • star
  • street
  • girl
  • baby


Define lowercase letters: lowercase letters are those letters used for common nouns and internal words.

Define uppercase letters: uppercase letters (also called capital letters) are those letters that signify the beginning of a sentence or a proper noun.

In summary,

  • Uppercase and lowercase letters refer to all letters used to compose the English language.
  • Uppercase letters are used to begin sentences and are also used for proper nouns.
  • Lowercase letters are all letters that do not begin sentences.


  • 1 What are Lowercase Letters?
  • 2 What are Uppercase Letters?
  • 3 When to Use Uppercase Letters
    • 3.1 Titles
    • 3.2 Acronyms
    • 3.3 All Proper Nouns
  • 4 When to Use Lowercase Letters
  • 5 Summary

Lowercase and Uppercase Letters: Definition and Meaning

The 26 letters in the English alphabet can take two forms: uppercase and lowercase. Each form serves a different function. Most of the letters you see in writing are lowercase.

Definition of Lowercase Letters

Lowercase letters are smaller and sometimes take a slightly different form than their uppercase counterparts.

Notice the L that starts the word Lowercase in the previous sentence. It’s larger than the other letters and looks different than the l in the word letters.

Lowercase letters are used more often than uppercase letters. They follow the first letter of a sentence or the first letter of a proper noun.

English Alphabet Lowercase Letters

These are the lowercase forms of each of the 26 letters in the English alphabet.

a b c d e f g h i j k l m
n o p q r s t u v w x y z

Definition of Uppercase Letters

Uppercase letters, also called capital letters, are used to start sentences and as the initial letter of a proper noun.

Uppercase letters are larger than their lowercase counterparts. Though most uppercase letters look similar to their lowercase partners, others take slightly different forms.

English Alphabet Uppercase (Capital) Letters

These are the uppercase or capital forms of the 26 letters in the English alphabet.


When Should You Use Lowercase Letters?

It’s easier to explain the function of lowercase letters by saying what they don’t do. Lowercase letters do not start sentences and are not used as the initial letter of a proper noun.

They are used for all the remaining letters in sentences and following the first letter of proper nouns.

Most of the letters you write will be lowercase. A quick scan of this article shows that uppercase letters are used in specific circumstances and lowercase are used everywhere else!

In the first sentence of the paragraph above, Most of the letters you write will be lowercase., only the M in Most is an uppercase letter. All the others are lowercase.

Use Lowercase Letters with Common Nouns

Nouns are words that represent a person, place, thing, or idea. There are two types of nouns: common and proper.

Common nouns refer to a non-specific person, place, thing, or idea. They are generic terms. The chart below shows the common noun version of the proper nouns used above.

Proper noun (capitalize first letter) Common noun (lowercase letters)
Joanna person
London city
France country
Tuesday weekday
September month

Proper nouns refer to a specific person, place, thing, or idea. For example, the name of a particular person, city, country, day of the week, or month is a proper noun.

  • Joanna
  • London
  • France
  • Tuesday
  • September

The initial letter of a proper noun is an uppercase letter. The rest are lowercase.

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Sentence Examples with Proper and Common Nouns

These sentences contain both proper and common nouns (in bold). The proper nouns are capitalized, the common nouns contain only lowercase letters.

  • After work, Sue met friends for dinner.
  • The ancient poet Homer wrote The Odyssey and The Iliad.
  • My favorite day of the week is Sunday, and my favorite month is July.

When Should You Use Uppercase Letters?

Most often, capital letters are used to start sentences and proper nouns, but those aren’t the only times.

This list explains other circumstances that require uppercase letters.

1. The first word of a quote that’s part of a complete sentence

When an embedded quote is also a complete sentence, the first word of that quote should be capitalized.

  • Mary said, “We should go to the beach.”

2. Titles of literary or artistic works

Capitalize the first, last, and all other words in a title except conjunctions, articles, and prepositions of fewer than four letters. This is called “Title Case.” (Some style guides have even more specific guidelines, so always check!)

  • To Kill a Mockingbird
  • The Hunger Games
  • The Fault in Our Stars

3. Professional titles preceding a person’s name

When a title such as “Dr.” or “President” precedes a specific person’s name, capitalize it.

  • We will now hear from Dr. Jones, our keynote speaker.
  • President Biden will give a speech later today.

Use lowercase letters if the title is used as a description or not followed by a specific name.

  • The keynote speaker is Martin Jones, a doctor.
  • I’m watching the president give a speech.

If you feel overwhelmed by the different rules of capitalization, remember that ProWritingAid is here to help!

It’s a thorough grammar checker (and more) that will detect errors in capitalization for you.

4. The pronoun “I”

You should always capitalize the pronoun “I.”

5. Acronyms and Initialisms

An acronym is a word formed by taking the first letter of each word of a compound term. Initialisms are similar abbreviations, except that the letters are pronounced individually rather than forming a new word.

  • PIN is an acronym for personal identification number and is pronounced as the word “pin”
  • FBI is an initialism for the Federal Bureau of Investigation and is pronounced as individual letters F-B-I

Some phrases are also abbreviated as initialisms:

  • “Talk to you later” is TTYL
  • “As soon as possible” is ASAP

Acronyms and initialisms should always appear in uppercase form.

6. When adding emphasis

Be careful with this use of uppercase letters!

When you put words or sentences in ALL CAPS, a practice often seen in texts or posts, you add emphasis to your words. Consider how that emphasis will be perceived.

ALL CAPS statements carry more aggression and intensity than lowercase words. That’s not always a bad thing.

For example, texting someone “HAPPY BIRTHDAY!” instead of “Happy birthday” is a way to convey excitement and show you really mean those good wishes.

Other times, ALL CAPS can sound accusatory, demeaning, or rude.

Remember that ALL CAPS in writing makes it seem as though the speaker is yelling. Keep that in mind before you press “send” on your uppercase text or post!

A Summary of Lowercase and Uppercase Letters

Lowercase letters are used for common nouns and for every letter after the initial letter of the first word of a sentence.

Uppercase letters are most often used at the start of sentences and as the first letter of proper nouns, though there are other times to use the capital letter form too.

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Russian and English alphabet in one line

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For those who are looking for and cannot find. In addition to the alphabet itself, there are also brief characteristics of these.

Perhaps you will be interested in such a calculator: frequency analysis of the arbitrary text online

English alphabet

Little letters
Capsubore letters
in the opposite letters

characteristics of the English alphabet of the English alphabet0068 Number of letters 26

Of which 21 are consonants (B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, V, W, X, Y, Z)

Vowels - 6 pcs.

Russian alphabet

Lower case
Upper case
Reverse upper case

Characteristics of the Russian alphabet

Number of letters - 33

Of which 21 consonants Ф, Х, Х, Ц, Ш, Ш)

Vowels - 10 pieces - b, b

solid - 18 pieces, of which:

paired -15 , X )

unpaired - 3 ( W, W, C )

Soft - 18, of which:

paired -15

unpaired - 3 ( Ch, Sh, Y )

voiced - 11 pieces, of which

paired - 6 ( B, C, D, D, F, Z)

unpaired - 5 ( Y , L, M, N, R )

Deaf - 10 pieces, of which

paired - 6 (P, F, K, T, W, S)

unpaired - 4 Ch, Shch )

Phonetic alphabet

Used to improve speech intelligibility when spelling unfamiliar words in hard-to-hear conditions such as telephone conversations or radio communications. The following words are used:

In English

India Mike November NOVEMBER
Letter Word code English transcription Russian transcription
N November NOVEMBE
Z Zulu ZOOLOO Zulu

In Russian

Letter Word code Letter Word code Letter Word code
A Anna (Anton) K Constantine (kilowatt) x Khariton
B Boris L Leonid C Heron
B Vasily M Maria (Mikhail) H Man
D George (Gregory) H Nicholas W Shura
D Dmitry O Olga W Pike
E Elena P Pavel b Solid mark
Yo Yorsh (Hedgehog) P Roman S Ygrek
F Zhenya C Sergey b Soft sign
3 Zoya (Zinaida) T Tatiana E Emilia
and Ivan W Ulyana Yu Yuri
Y Ivan short f Fedor I Yakov

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Lowercase Latin letters are an example - Dudom

Lowercase letter is a letter that is smaller than uppercase letters. Lowercase letters are used by default for writing texts in all cases, except for those where the rules require the use of uppercase (large) letters. For example, the letter "a" is lowercase, and "A" is uppercase [1] [2] .

Lower case letters are used in European alphabets: Greek, Latin, Cyrillic and Armenian [2] .

Initially, when writing, only capital letters were used, which had clearly defined upper and lower boundaries. Later, with the development of writing, ordinary letters begin to be opposed to initials (in European languages, this occurs in the 11th-15th centuries). With the development of cursive writing, the shape of the letters became more rounded, which resulted, for example, in such a form of writing as the uncial. In Cyrillic, lowercase letters appear in the 18th century with the introduction of civil script [2] .


Appearance [ edit | edit code]

Latin alphabet [edit | edit code]

The modern standard Latin alphabet consists of 26 uppercase and the same number of lowercase letters: [3]

uppercase A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W x Y Z
lowercase a b c d and f g h and j k l m n or p q r s t and v w x and z

Cyrillic [edit | edit code]

Modern Russian Cyrillic consists of 33 uppercase and the same number of lowercase letters: [3]

uppercase A B B D D E Yo F Z and Y K L M H O P P C T W F X C H W W b S b E Yu I
lowercase a b to g d e e w s and and to l m n about p r from t at f x c h sh w ъ s e y i

Greek alphabet [edit | edit code]

Modern Greek uses 24 uppercase and 25 lowercase letters: [4]

uppercase A Β - Δ E Z H Θ Ι K Λ M N Ξ Ο Π P Σ Τ Y Φ x Ψ Ω
lowercase α β δ e ζ η θ v κ λ μ v ξ to π r σ, ς to υ φ x ψ w

Armenian alphabet [edit | edit code]

The modern Armenian alphabet consists of 38 uppercase and the same number of lowercase letters: [3]

All 26 printed letters of the basic Latin alphabet in the table with numbering and translation into Russian
No. Latin letter. (uppercase - lowercase) Russian pronunciation
1 A - a a
2 B - b be
3 C - c ce
4 D - d de
5 E-e e
6 F - f eff
7 G - g ge
8 H - h ha/ash
9 I - i and
10 J - j iot/zhi
11 K - k ka
12 L - l el
13 M - m em
14 N - n en
15 O - o about
16 P-p pe
17 Q - q ku
18 R - r er
19 S - s es
20 T - t te
21 U - u at
22 V-v ve
23 W - w double-ve
24 X - x x
25 Y - y Y/Upsilon
26 Z - z zed

  • The classical Latin alphabet of the Roman Empire consisted of 23 letters: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, V, X, Y, Z.
  • The letters J, U, W appeared much later.

I can't figure out how many letters there must be in the complete real Latvian alphabet.

Standard consists of twenty-six alphabetic characters. This plate shows the newest version, and it is he who is officially approved in the statutes of the international organization for standardization.

What is the Latin alphabet?

In short, this is the old common European script. It is based on most of today's languages ​​of the countries of the European Union: English, German and French ... True, in each case with its own language differences.

is how they wrote in ancient Rome. In ancient times it was called Latin. The Roman Empire planted its speech everywhere it could reach.

The Latin alphabet and English are the same

It's okay to fill in

You opened my eyes, I don't know how I can continue to live with this great knowledge.

I'm for you bro, I believe you will be able to shed light on this secret. The world needs to be told the truth. Start your world tour.

font on the keyboard.

Almost no one speaks Latin now, so it is still commonly called a dead language.

Medicine, names of diseases, in prescriptions…

Globalization will suffocate, with each century the need for it will become less. Yes, and there will be fewer specialists in these areas.

Capitals are what signs

Are they Large or they are also called by the people CAPITALS.
I suspect that you are confused about the question, but in fact you wanted to find handwritten ones on the net. Well good luck to you.

Handwritten in a notebook

Excellent work, lowercase and uppercase written without errors ATP

Scanword lat. small letter word with 7 letters. I don't want to guess, who knows which one is sure? It means W or Y

Previously, the Etruscans sang

Along with classical Latin, there was the so-called vulgar or folk Latin, i. e. colloquial. It was he who spread the Roman soldiers and settlers to the occupied territories. Overlaying the languages ​​of the indigenous population of these territories, colloquial (folk. Vulgar) Latin gave new Romance languages ​​​​and dialects (Roma - Rome; romanus - Roman): Italian, Spanish, Sardinian, Sicilian, French, Portuguese, Romanian, Romansh languages, Dalmatian ( now dead), Gallic and many other smaller ones.

latin how to add symbols of ancient languages ​​m

Latin letters may be needed for various purposes, for example, to write scientific terms, old city names or names of historical figures. Fortunately, this is not a problem at all, since they are present on any computer keyboard, you just need to switch the layout. In this short article, we will tell you how to type lowercase and uppercase Latin letters on a computer or laptop keyboard.

Set of Latin letters on the keyboard

The English keyboard layout is usually used for typing lowercase and uppercase letters of the Latin alphabet. The English alphabet is based on the Latin, so all letters look exactly the same. Therefore, in order to type Latin letters on the keyboard, you need to switch to the English layout.

Most Windows computers use one of two keyboard shortcuts to switch between layouts: ALT-SHIFT or CTRL-SHIFT. You can try one combination first, and then another. One of these options should work and switch the keyboard layout.

You can watch the keyboard layout change by the icon located in the lower right corner of the screen, next to the system clock. This icon shows the current keyboard layout.

If you find it difficult to switch the keyboard layout using key combinations, then you can do it with the mouse. To do this, click on the icon that displays the current language and select English.

After you switch the keyboard layout to English, you can type Latin letters using the English alphabet, which is always present on any computer keyboard.

Lowercase and uppercase Latin letters

The set of lowercase and uppercase Latin letters is no different from the set of letters from any other alphabet. To do this, use the SHIFT or CAPS LOCK keys.

The CAPS LOCK key takes its name from the English capitals lock, which can be translated as "fixation on capital letters". By pressing this key, you switch the keyboard to a set of uppercase letters. In the future, the keyboard will only type uppercase letters until you press CAPS LOCK again, thereby switching the keyboard to lowercase.

The SHIFT key is a modifier key and usually changes the behavior of other keys. When typing letters, the SHIFT key is responsible for switching between lowercase and uppercase letters. If CAPS LOCK is off and you are typing lowercase letters, pressing the letter together with the SHIFT key will cause the letter to be capitalized. If CAPS LOCK is on and you are typing in capital letters, then pressing the letter together with the SHIFT key will have the opposite effect, you will get a lowercase letter.

Troubleshooting Latin characters

If your keyboard layout list does not contain an English layout, you will not be able to use Latin characters.

Learn more