What is the lexile of my book

About Lexile Codes - Lexile

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Lexile measures help you find just-right books to match your students’ reading abilities.

But there’s more to a book than a quantitative text complexity metric. To help you engage students even further, many books also get Lexile codes. These codes provide more information about the type of book and its age appropriateness.

The code is a two-letter designation before the Lexile measure. For example, some children’s books seem simple, but are better when adults read them out loud to children. A book like this might get a two-letter designation — AD, or adult directed — which appears before the Lexile measure. A book labeled “AD580L” means that the book is adult directed and is appropriate for students reading at or near a Lexile measure of 580L.

Spanish titles with Lexile measures are divided into similar categories and have Spanish Lexile codes.

For each of these codes, more information and examples can be found below.

  • AD: Adult Directed: Better when read aloud to a student rather than having the student read independently.
  • NC: Non-Conforming: Good for high-ability readers who still need age-appropriate content.
  • HL: High-Low: Content to engage older students who need materials that are less complex and at a lower reading level.
  • IG: Illustrated Guide: Nonfiction materials often used for reference.
  • GN: Graphic Novel: Graphic novels or comic books.
  • BR: Beginning Reader: Appropriate for emerging readers with a Lexile reader measure below 0L.
  • NP: Non-Prose: Poems, plays, songs, recipes and text with non-standard or absent punctuation.


AD: Adult Directed

Picture books are often labeled AD, or “adult directed,” because they are usually read to a child, rather than a child reading them independently. Picture a parent reading a book to a child on the sofa, or a teacher reading a book aloud to the class. Although these books seem like easy reading, some picture books can still present a challenging independent reading experience to an age-appropriate reader for reasons of text difficulty, book layout or design.

Take the example of Maurice Sendak’s Where the Wild Things Are (HarperCollins Publishers), a beloved read-aloud book for preschoolers. However, it has a Lexile text measure of 740L, which is around the average reading ability for a child completing fourth grade. When you look closely at the text, you can see why it gets a “higher” Lexile text measure than the intended audience. The sentences are long and contain fairly high-level vocabulary such as “mischief,” “private,” “gnash” and “rumpus.” The parent or educator would help the preschooler sound these words out and decipher these long sentences. Therefore, the book is coded AD (adult directed) and the measure is AD740L.

Additionally, picture books can have design elements that may visually complicate reading for a child. Factors such as font size, typeface, page layout, legibility and the relationship between pictures and text may significantly impact reading comprehension. The story and illustrations in Where the Wild Things Are are perfect for young children. But the lines of the text are close together and the sentences are spread over multiple pages, often in long horizontal lines. These design elements may challenge a child’s ability to read the book independently even if the text difficulty is well matched. Initially, a more advanced reader may need to read the book with a child.

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NC: Non-Conforming

Sometimes, high-ability readers have trouble finding books that challenge their reading skills but still have age-appropriate content. The NC code helps identify these books, which have received a higher Lexile text measure but are appropriate for a younger audience.

For example, Seymour Simon’s Amazing Aircraft (SeaStar Books) is coded NC900L. Its spine reads “grades 1-3” but its Lexile measure is higher than a typical early elementary school student’s ability range. This book might be hard to read for most students in grades 1-3, but engaging and challenging for students with above-average reading abilities. Therefore, the book is coded as NC (non-conforming) and would be appropriate for a student in grades 1-3 with a Lexile reader measure at or near 900L.

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HL: High-Low

A text designated as “HL” has a Lexile text measure much lower than the average reading ability of the intended age range of its readers. Librarians and booksellers sometimes refer to young adult books with disproportionately low Lexile measures as “high-low” books, meaning “high-interest” plus “low-readability.” These books receive an HL code. Fiction HL books are often useful when matching older (grade seven and beyond) struggling or reluctant readers with text at both an appropriate difficulty level and an appropriate developmental level.

Despite their short sentences and basic vocabulary, HL books are designed to appeal to readers at a more mature developmental level. For example, Beth Goobie’s Sticks and Stones (Orca Soundings) is classified as a young adult book and measures 430L — the average Lexile reader measure for second graders. The book’s characters are high-school students who struggle with the many challenges that face high-school students such as dating and gossip. Therefore, the book is coded HL430L.

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IG: Illustrated Guide

The IG code is applied to books that consist of independent pieces or sections of text such as in an encyclopedia or glossary. These text pieces could be moved around without affecting the overall linear flow of the book. Nonfiction IG books are often used as a reference resource rather than read in their entirety like a storybook. Their distinguishing text characteristics include:

  • technical vocabulary, definitions and pronunciation guides in parentheses or contrasting type
  • integration of illustrations and diagrams into the text
  • pull-quotes, factoids and other categorical marginalia
  • the presentation of each discrete topic on one to two pages

These text characteristics do not necessarily impact reading comprehension or developmental appropriateness. Instead, the IG code conveys an idea of the kind of book and what the book typically will be used for in the classroom or library.

Birds of Prey by Dr. Gerald Legg (Franklin Watts Library) is coded IG. Separate paragraphs are arranged upon the page, functioning more like multiple-sentence captions. A particular reading order is neither indicated by the layout nor important to comprehension. Thus the book measure is IG980L.

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GN: Graphic Novel

The GN code indicates that the book is a graphic novel or comic book. The text of GN books appears primarily in voice or thought bubbles integrated into comic book-style illustrations. Graphic novels tend to contain a larger percentage of dialogue than most other genres of books. They also typically lack some of the required text conventions of dialogue, such as putting “she said” after a quoted sentence, because illustrations are used to indicate spoken text. The impact of picture support on reading comprehension is not captured in the Lexile measure of a graphic novel. To Dance: A Ballerina’s Graphic Novel (Aladdin), written by Siena Cherson Siegel and illustrated by Mark Siegel, is coded as GN610L.

Also see this article from Edutopia about the instructional value of using graphic novels and comics in the classroom.

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BR: Beginning Reader

Beginning Reader (BR) is a code given to readers and text that are below 0L on the Lexile scale. In some cases, for readers, a BR code is followed by a number and L (e.g., BR150L). A Lexile reader measure of BR150L indicates that the Lexile measure of the reader is 150 units below 0L. The lower the number following the BR code, the more advanced the reader or text is. The higher the number, the less complex the text is or less skilled the reader is.

Note that Beginning Reader (BR) is the only Lexile code that applies to both readers and text. All other codes apply only to text. Learn more about the Beginning Reader code and the recent enhancements to more precisely match beginning readers to text.

Good Night, Gorilla by Peggy Rathmann (Random House) is a BR book with a Lexile measure of BR50L.

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NP: Non-Prose

Some books don’t receive Lexile text codes because they are aren’t prose. These books might feature poems, plays, songs, recipes and text with non-standard or absent punctuation. The NP code is for any book comprising more than 50% non-standard or non-conforming prose. NP books do not receive a Lexile measure, merely the NP code.

An example of a book coded NP is Maurice Sendak’s Alligators All Around (HarperTrophy). The text of the book is not in complete sentences and lacks punctuation entirely. The text difficulty of such a book cannot currently be assigned a Lexile measure.

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Have more questions about finding the appropriate book for your students?

Visit the Lexile® Find a Book  tool or our Lexile Support Center.

How To Determine Your Child’s Reading Level And Choose The Best Books

When you sit down to read a book, you want to enjoy the story in front of you. The same is true for your child. That’s why uncovering your child’s reading level is an important step in fostering their love of words from a young age!

Consider the different factors that allow kids to enjoy the books they read. For example, does it tie into their interests, and is it slated as an appropriate option for their level? By answering these questions, you can make sure they’re reading books that are just right for them!

If your child is in school, you’re probably no stranger to jargon like “reading level.” But what exactly does Lexile Framework, Guided Reading Levels (GRL), or Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA) actually mean?

Additionally, if your child is just starting to read on their own (or already reading independently) and is learning from home, how can you figure out what reading level is right for them? If any of these thoughts have crossed your mind, you’ve come to the right place.

We’re here to answer your questions so you and your child can sit down and enjoy a good book together!

What Is A Reading Level?

A reading level is simply a measure of your child’s ability to read text. It reflects how well your little one can read independently. Importantly, reading levels help you choose books that are a good match for your child while still presenting a challenge.

Keep in mind these levels are meant to be helpful, not stressful. They don’t limit your child, but, rather, help them blossom into a fluent, excited reader.

When your child reads books that are appropriate for their current reading level, it boosts their confidence so they can truly enjoy reading! Also, knowing what level your child is at allows you to work with them to improve their skills.

That being said, it’s important to remember that children are unique and develop differently. Comparing your child to their peers isn’t necessarily the best approach when trying to assess their reading ability.

Why Is Determining Reading Level Important?

It’s helpful to determine your child’s reading level so you can find books that are appropriate for them to read on their own: not too difficult but challenging enough to encourage growth.

Reading level classification is a convenient tool you can use when searching online or at the library. And when you provide books that are on your child’s level, you create excitement and build their confidence, which can lead to a lifetime love of learning and reading!

If you’re looking for ways to help your little one read at the best level for them, Our new app HOMER Learn & Grow has a Stories section that gives age-appropriate story recommendations!

This is a great resource that takes your child’s specific interests and recommends stories just for them. What’s more, your child can choose to read along or read on their own.

How Is Your Child’s Reading Level Measured?

Your child’s reading level is usually measured at their school in first or second grade, and we’ll show you how that’s done. Here’s a tip: since your child’s teacher knows their reading level, consider asking the teacher (or the school librarian) for books your child can read at home.

Don’t worry if your child isn’t in school yet or if they’re homeschooled. We’ll show you how you can measure their reading level at home, too!

Before we dive in, it’s important to note that we think of books for kids at three levels: independent reading, instructional reading, and frustrating to read.

As the names indicate, independent reading books are ones a child can read with ease and without support from an adult.

Instructional ones are the books just above independent that teachers might use to stretch a child’s reading as they offer support while the child makes that next step. Finally, frustrating books are too hard for a child to read even with adult guidance.

Now that you have an idea of how to think of the different books your child might encounter, let’s talk about the tools used for determining or describing reading levels.

Lexile Framework For Reading

Lexile Framework For Reading is an educational tool that ranks books by order of their difficulty using a scale called a Lexile. Usually, your child’s teacher will determine their Lexile reading level and then choose books that have a matching score.

The Lexile score, or measure, describes your child’s reading ability and matches them with books and other reading materials. This measure ranges anywhere from 0L to 2000L.

Kids are encouraged to read within their Lexile “range” — 50L above to 100L below their actual level. For instance, if your little one is reading with a Lexile measure of 500L, they would read books ranging anywhere from 400L to 550L.

Using standardized assessments, schools will often measure a child’s reading level several times a year to help them select books that are appropriate for independent reading.

Guided Reading Levels (GRL)

GRL is a guided reading system used in some schools.

To determine reading levels using GRL, children sit one-on-one with their teacher and read from a book that’s considered standard for their grade level — a “benchmark” book. GRL books range from A to Z with A being the easiest.

While reading these books, the teacher will take notes on any missed words and ask comprehension questions, such as, “When did the story take place?” or, “What was the problem in the story?”.

Through guided instruction, the teacher will gradually move children into more difficult books.

Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA)

DRA is a standardized reading test given by teachers or reading specialists. As with GRL, children sit individually with the test administrator and read a book.

Several factors are taken into consideration to determine reading level, including:

  • Reading comprehension
  • Phonemic awareness
  • Fluency

DRA books are labeled with an A for the easiest books and then move into a numerical grading system. The levels range from 1 to 80 with 1-3 representing a kindergarten reading level and 80 representing an eighth-grade reading level.

Once a child has a DRA or a GRL level, a teacher or parent can search for the reading level of any particular book and can usually discover either the Lexile, DRA, or GRL of that particular text. Here’s a chart for your reference.

At-Home Reading Levels

If you’re looking for a way to find out your child’s reading level without using any of the methods listed above, you might try the five-finger rule.

For the five-finger rule, choose a book and flip to any page. If your child seems to have trouble reading more than five words on the page, it’s a good indicator that the book is too advanced for them.

To be sure, though, you can have your child try another page, especially if they seem eager to read a particular book.

This can be a helpful strategy, but it’s OK to let your child try a book and see how the reading goes. If a book is too hard, most kids will figure that out — and there is nothing wrong with reading books that are too easy!

Sometimes a child may be interested in a book that’s a little too hard for them. If this happens, we encourage you to read aloud to your child. You can also read together by alternating pages, paragraphs, or sentences.

It’s important not to completely avoid books that may be a little above your child’s reading level.

Even if your child struggles a bit to read them without assistance, these books can still be beneficial in helping build their vocabulary, improve comprehension, and increase general knowledge — not to mention, encourage their love of reading!

When your emerging reader seems overwhelmed by one book, you can always give the five-finger rule a try with other books until you find the right match. And if your child is particularly interested in a topic, you can always read the book to them and stop on words you know they can read.

Also remember that when a child is really enjoying a book and highly motivated to read it, they will read at a higher level than if the material is not as interesting to them.

Tip: Most libraries and bookstores have books arranged by reading level so you can easily choose the best one for your emerging reader!

Feel free to ask librarians and knowledgeable staff at bookstores to offer suggestions. You could even say something like, “My child happily read a Clifford book; can you suggest others at the same level?”

How To Help Your Child Become A Stronger Reader

As we mentioned earlier, you can easily determine your child’s reading level at home so that you can help them choose books that are just right! We suggest incorporating some of the tips below to help your child become a stronger reader.

Start With Clues

  • Is your child using “sounding out” techniques to figure out unknown words?
  • When your child reads, are they getting tripped up by sight words — common words that are hard to sound out?
  • Is your child using pictures to help them understand what is written on the page?
  • Is your child using context clues to figure out what word makes sense to come next as they read sentences?

Check Vocabulary

  • Play games with your child to see what words they know. For example, say a sentence and point out one word in the sentence. Then ask them if they can come up with a different word (synonym).
  • Play synonym games to see what words your child knows. For example, challenge yourselves to think of 10 or more ways to describe speaking (shout, whisper, mumble).

While you’re talking with your child, describe something specific from your day. Make sure to use interesting adjectives, and don’t hold back from using sophisticated vocabulary when talking with your child.

You can help your child’s vocabulary grow through day-to-day conversations and activities!

Ask Comprehension Questions

Understanding what they read is an important part of your child’s reading journey.

  • To check for reading comprehension, we suggest pausing every other page to talk about what you’ve just read. Make this a natural reaction to the story, like you’re thinking aloud about the story or characters, so that it doesn’t feel like a test.
  • Consider encouraging your child to act out and retell the story (for younger children).
  • Try discussing themes/lessons with your child (for older children). Remember: this isn’t a test, but a conversation between book lovers!

Talk To Your Child

When most people implement strategies to help their children improve their reading skills, they often forget about the importance of verbal communication. It’s essential to talk to your child frequently in short and simple sentences.

This includes singing songs, telling them wonderful stories, reciting fun nursery rhymes, and describing the world around them. All of this exposes children to lots of different words. It also helps them learn that language is a powerful tool for communication.

Discover Your Child’s Favorite Books

  • Children often choose books that are a little below their actual reading level. At home, this is a good thing. It keeps reading fun and exciting!
  • We recommend choosing books that interest your child — with a certain character or activity they like — so they’re curious and excited about reading.

Reading books your child enjoys together can encourage their love of reading. And letting them read those same books to you can boost their confidence over time.

Together, these two activities increase your child’s fluency and reading enjoyment!

Create A Reading Corner

Establishing a reading corner in your house can benefit your child. The setup doesn’t need to be elaborate. This can be a simple, quiet, private area where your child can confidently read independently or with you. 

It’s also great for the spot to be well-lit and filled with lots of books your child enjoys reading. 

Is Reading The Same Book Over And Over OK?

Just like you might pick up an old favorite book to read, your child may do the same, and that’s OK! At least you know they’re enjoying a good book and the process of reading!

Rereading books can have many benefits for a child, including:

It allows children to get more from the text. Have you ever developed a deeper understanding of a story after rereading it? That’s because the more you engage with a story, the more you can take away from it.

You can pick up on new information, establish connections between yourself and some of the characters, and even improve your understanding of the overall story.

Similarly, allowing your child to read their favorite books for the second, third, fourth (or more) time will enable them to get more from the story.

It also allows for bonding. Did you know that rereading books can help bring your family closer together?

Many of us remember a couple of books that our family read together regularly. This can be a holiday book or a favorite story. Rereading is a great way to get the whole family involved, as everyone can take turns reading and connecting on the same story.

What’s more, reading familiar books can actually help develop a young reader’s fluency. It allows them to learn the words and helps them become familiar with narrative structure or storylines (i.e. beginning, middle, and end), which builds reading comprehension later on.

So feel free to let your child choose the same book over and over!

FAQs About Reading Levels

What Reading Level Should My Child Be In Each Grade?

It’s challenging to answer this question because each child is different and will naturally develop at their own pace. For example, just because your child’s friend has started reading fluently doesn’t mean your child will be able to do that yet.

While no parent wants their own child to be a little behind compared to their peers, putting too much pressure on them to “catch up” might actually have an adverse effect. In fact, they might feel overwhelmed by the pressure and develop a negative attitude toward reading.

It’s also important to note that there’s no direct link between a certain Lexile measure and a specific grade level. When using any of the reading level measures we mentioned, remember that they are an estimate of a child’s performance and shouldn’t be interpreted literally.

Also, if you’re really concerned about your young learner’s development, you can always address those concerns with their teacher or another professional. They can offer tips and advice on how to best work with your child.

Finally, remember to be patient and positive no matter what. With lots of time and effort, your child will develop a lifetime love of reading!

Who Can Help Me Choose Books That Match My Child’s Reading Level?

The best place to start is to consult your child’s teacher. They will have the expertise to guide you in buying the right books for your child.

It’s also possible for you to look up most books online and find their reading levels. Furthermore, for beginner readers, there are publishers who label books in stages with age and/or grade suggestions attached.

If you’re homeschooling, you can also reach out to your local librarian or bookstores. As people who spend each day surrounded by books, they often have knowledge on this topic and may be able to recommend a few relevant books in your child’s reading level.

What If My Child Is Reading At A Lower Level?

The last thing a parent wants to hear is that their child’s reading level isn’t on par with their peers. But what can you do if, from the assessment used at your child’s school, you find out that your young learner is reading below the average grade level?

Firstly, it’s important not to panic. As mentioned earlier, kids develop reading skills at different stages of their development. Some children might be early readers, while others may take time to get there.

The most effective way to help your child improve their reading level is by continuing to encourage reading at home. While reading, remember to discuss the content to ensure comprehension.

Reading For Fun

From assessments to the five-finger rule, determining reading levels varies across the board. No matter which method you choose, remember these measurements are meant to be helpful and encouraging, not stressful and limiting.

Keep this in mind when assessing your young learner. You don’t want your child to sense any stress about their abilities, as this might overwhelm them and have an adverse effect on how they view reading.

While reading is an essential early learning (and lifelong) skill, you want your child to LOVE reading and not only view it as a test of their intelligence.

At the end of the day, the way reading makes your child feel is more important than their reading level. Each child learns in a way that’s special and unique to them.

The HOMER Road To Reading

The road to discovering how to read can be a fun ride, but sometimes it’s bumpy. This is why we’re more than a learning program. We’re your learning partner.

If you’re looking for a resource to help develop your child’s love of reading and learning, consider taking a look at the HOMER Learn & Grow app. It’s full of stories curated based on your child’s interests!

When your child develops a love for reading, they’ll move up to the next level before you can say “Developmental Reading Assessment”!


Read online "The Russian language on the verge of a nervous breakdown", M. A. Krongauz - LitRes, page 2 Another thing is that the reader, having read up to this point, may ask who is to blame for all this disgrace and what exactly I propose. Here, to be consistent, one can answer that, as a philistine, I should not offer anything constructive.

It's not my business.

But it is possible to do otherwise and release the temporarily suppressed linguist in me. And let him talk about today's Russian language. And it’s better not in the “let’s talk right” genre (as is most often the case on radio and television), or at least not only in it, but rather in the genre of observing how we actually say that, surprisingly, it is interesting to very, very many.

In Russia, in any situation immediately asking the main questions “Who is to blame?” and “What to do?”, they often forget to ask: “What actually happened?” And what happened was a gigantic restructuring (the word of the Gorbachev era certainly fits here) of the language under the influence of the most complex social, technological and even natural changes. The one who manages to adapt survives. The Russian language managed, although for this it had to change a lot. Like all of us. Unfortunately, it will never be the same again. But, as Isaac Bashevis Singer said, “The mistakes of one generation become the accepted style and grammar for the next. ” And God forbid that some grammar comes out of our mistakes. And I, an irritated layman, will have to come to terms with this, and maybe even be proud of it.

In any case, those who lived in an era of great change have one obvious advantage. They have something to remember.

The emergence of new words or new meanings for old words means that the world around us has changed. Either something new has appeared in it, or something that existed has become so important that the language (and in fact we ourselves) creates a name for it. Recently, so many new words have appeared in the Russian language that linguists do not have time to follow them and publish updated dictionaries, and ordinary people often simply do not understand what they are talking about.

Words appear singly, in groups, and sometimes in very large groups. The last one is the most interesting, because in this case we are talking about a significant change in the environment, about a certain wave of changes that covers our society. We can note at least several such large waves that emerged at the turn of the century, and possibly continuing beyond.

After perestroika, we experienced at least three verbal waves: gangster, professional and glamorous, but in reality we lived through three most important periods of the same name, three, if you like, fashions that our native language allows us to discern. You can philosophize about these periods endlessly, you can make films or write novels, or you can just say those very words, and a whole era will rise behind them. This is also a philosophy, but a philosophy of language. It is foolish to talk about its contamination, it is foolish to blame the language in general, if our life is like that. And we must be more tolerant and remember that words are reflections.

Young vocabulary course

The most noticeable of the changes taking place in the language is the emergence of new words and, a little less strikingly, the emergence of new meanings. Try not to notice the new word! As I have already said, the eye immediately stumbles about it, it simply interferes with understanding the text and requires explanations, and at the same time, some special attraction is often hidden in new words, the charm of something secret, alien. But where do new words and new meanings come from in the language?

It is generally accepted that the Russian language, if it lacks some important word, simply borrows it from another language, primarily from English. Well, for example, in the field of computers and the Internet, it would seem that this is the only thing that happens. Words computer, monitor, printer, processor, website, blog and many others are borrowed from English. However, this is a delusion; more precisely, this is not the case. This can be illustrated by a kind of IT menagerie [6] . The names of three animals - mouse, dog (and now dog ) and hamster - acquired new, "computer" meanings, and in completely different ways.

Well, everything is clear with mouse , this meaning is well known to everyone and has already been recorded in dictionaries (“a special device that allows you to control the cursor and enter various kinds of commands”). In Russian, this is the so-called tracing paper from English: that is, the new meaning appeared in the corresponding name of the animal in English, and the Russian simply added it to the meanings of the word mouse. The computer mouse at first was really similar to the usual one, both in shape, and in the tail-wire, and in the way it ran on the rug. Now computer mice are quite far removed from the prototype, but the meaning is already firmly entrenched in the language.

But the dog as the name for @, the e-mail icon, was invented by the Russian language itself (more precisely, by an unknown author or, as they say in such cases, the people). Again, I picked up something similar, invented a new metaphor, although, I must say, the resemblance to a dog is very doubtful. At first I could not answer the question that foreigners often ask - why a dog, and then I came up with a booth with a dog on a long chain, and for some reason this helps, creates a certain image. Foreigners are perplexed at first, but then doomedly accept the strange Russian metaphor. In general, many languages ​​\u200b\u200bcall this icon with the name of an animal: Italian sees a snail here, German - a monkey, Finnish - a cat, Chinese - a mouse, trunks and pig tails flicker in other languages. And only we noticed the dog, such a special Russian look.

The French (albeit together with the Spaniards and the Portuguese) went in a completely different, but also special way, which surprisingly demonstrates the possibilities of today's state regulation of the language. Here is a fragment of an information note on the Internet about this:

The French General Committee for Terminology officially approved several neologisms related to the Internet and officially included them in the French language, reports Compulenta. New words are introduced instead of English borrowings and are designed to preserve the purity of the French language. Now the use of new words on French websites and in the press is preferred over English terms or their translations.

Most interesting is the new French name for the “@” character, a required element of any email address. In English, this character is usually read as “at”, and in Russian it is called “dog”. The French are now required to read this symbol as arobase. This name comes from the old Spanish and Portuguese measure arrobe, which at one time was indicated precisely by the letter “a” circled in a circle. Its name, in turn, comes from the Arabic “ar-rub”, which means “quarter” [7] .

And further:

Interestingly, five years ago the General Committee on Terminology failed to replace the English term e-mail with the French word mél.

As the last remark shows, government regulation (even French) has its limits, but what happened to the e-mail symbol is impressive. It is quite difficult to imagine that, say, our Academy of Sciences decided to call this badge so-and-so, and the Russian people meekly complied with it.

Finally, the third word - hamster - suggests a third way for the meaning to appear, though not in literary language, but rather in Internet jargon. In this case, it is as if a borrowing of a foreign language expression (home page) occurs, and its sound image, partly distorted, approaches the already existing Russian word. That is, the most similar-sounding Russian word is taken, and a new meaning is assigned to it. This is not quite a borrowing, although the influence of the English language is obvious. It is important that there is no connection with the meaning of the word hamster does not exist, but there is only a sound connection. In fact, we are talking about a special language game, similar to a pun. This game turned out to be extremely entertaining, and as a result, more and more new jargons constantly appear. The most famous among them are related to e-mail: soap (actual e-mail, or the corresponding address) and email (from the personal name of Emel; send e-mail). The appearance of these words is caused solely by phonetic similarity with English e-mail. Quite often, as in the case of Emelya, there is a convergence with personal names: ICQ (eng. ICQ ) or clave (from keyboard ).

Such a game also happens outside of the computer realm. In the speech of clothing sellers, and then buyers, some time ago, the words elechka (option - elochka ) and emochka, at the sound level, coinciding with affectionate proper names, began to occur. These are colloquial designations for clothing sizes L and M . Apparently, there is, although much less common, the word esochka (for S ). With a high probability, it was the coincidence with existing proper names that contributed to the emergence of such diminutive variants of words. Relatively recently, the word yuriki appeared, although it did not become very common, denoting a new European currency - euros - and ascending to the English pronunciation.

This phonetic game is also widespread among car lovers. This is how the colloquial names of both automobile brands and individual models are formed. Mercedes has long been called gelding, here, however, the essence of the matter is not limited to phonetic similarity, but more on that later. On the forums of motorists on the Internet, I came across the word lean, which I did not immediately compare with the Pajero Mitsubishi model. A closer search showed that Peugeot is sometimes called 9 on motorist forums.0023 fawn, and Audi - avdyukha and - it seems completely disrespectful - string bag.

The abundance of examples shows that this is no longer a random game, but a normal working mechanism characteristic of the Russian language, or rather, of its jargons. Moreover, it demonstrates two very striking features of the Russian language, and at least for this reason one should not treat these words with disdain (“fu, what ridiculous words!”).

Firstly, this is an excellent confirmation of the creative nature of the Russian language as a whole, and not just its individual representatives - writers, journalists and Internet figures. This “creativity” is essentially built into Russian grammar, that is, it is available to everyone. As they say, use it - I don't want to. To be fair, some purists never use it.

Secondly, from all that has been said, it is clear that the danger of the destruction of the Russian language from a stream of borrowings is greatly exaggerated. He has very powerful defensive resources. And they do not consist in the rejection of borrowings, but in their speedy development. If you look at the latest examples, you can even say about the special “domestication” of certain foreign words that you liked.

However, one should not think that this method of forming new words appeared quite recently and that it is used only when borrowing. So, for example, Muscovites have long been “domesticating” and “animating” the soulless names of public transport routes: hence the famous Annushka - tram route "A" - and the lesser known insect - the name of the trolleybus "B".

Talking about concepts

Recently, almost any conversation about the Russian language comes down to talking about its deterioration. The debate about this is, as a rule, rather on an emotional level, but there are still several constant arguments. And as one of the main ones, the appearance in the language of a large number of “gangster” words is given. For solidity, they even talk about the “criminalization” of the language. Fighters for the purity of speech demand a cleansing of the lexicon, a ban on jargons, first of all, of course, gangster ones, and other punitive measures. Obviously, with the very fact of the frequent use in speech of such new (and old, but in new meanings) words as lawlessness, scumbag, hitting, roof, arrow, throw , etc., you can’t argue. But talking about the damage to the language, it seems to me, is not worth it. However, without anecdotes there is no way to figure it out.

Surprisingly (or, on the contrary, not surprisingly), the language of the new Russians immediately attracted the attention of society, which was expressed in a large number of jokes about it. Moreover, many anecdotes imitated texts from grammars and textbooks, so to speak, of the new Russian language. Here are some anecdotes just for example [8] .

Anecdote 1.

A brigadier teaches beginners: “Fingering can be vertical, horizontal, frontal, and purely random…”

Anecdote 2.

A paragraph from a new Russian language textbook.

To form a noun from a verb with stressed endings - at, - it, - yat and -et , it is necessary to add the ending -ovo to the verb in the past tense of the singular: , walking - walking, walking - walking, shooting - shooting, sitting - sitting, looking - watching.


You should remember the verb, from which the noun is formed purely as an exception: drive - drive.

Anecdote 3.

The rule from the textbook on the new Russian language for the fifth grade: “The word is pure is introductory and is separated by commas in those cases when it can be replaced by the phrase in kind ”.

I don't know how funny this is, but from a linguistic point of view, it's quite observant. True, this could be attributed to the genre of "notes of a naturalist", after all, cultured people do not say that. No, if you think about it, sometimes they say.

There are two important things to say. First and, in my opinion, obvious: we need language to talk about the reality around us. Of course, about the eternal too, and also to compose poems and accumulate information, but still ... First of all, we want to talk about what is happening to us here and now. And when the surrounding reality (this is the “here and now”) changes dramatically, we sometimes do not have enough words to talk about it. A good language is one that can quickly compensate for this shortcoming. Russian language in many ways, but still succeeded. It would be hypocrisy to say that the bandit period of our life is 9The 0s, to which famous novels and movie sagas are dedicated, did not exist. Some believe that it has not yet ended, but at least the most striking external signs: types, fingering, red jackets and the like are a thing of the past. But the words remain. Why? And this is the second thing worth mentioning.

Let's try to look at these words without bias. They are extremely curious and interesting from a linguist's point of view. There are almost no borrowings among them. Perhaps only 9 immediately come to mind0023 hitman and racket along with racketeer . And this despite the fact that the “new Russian” gangster world was obviously formed under the influence of American gangster mythology [9] . The films “The Godfather” or “Once Upon a Time in America”, which have long been classified as classics, have become models without which the Russian “Brigada” or “Boomer” would not have arisen. Among this vocabulary, there are quite a few words that came from the classic thieves give a damn (such as, for example, goof or throw ). However, it must be honestly admitted that the origin of many words cannot be reliably traced, although almost each of them is accompanied by its own linguistic legend.

On the whole, it is quite new and lively, that is, renewing, common and rather attractive jargon. New meanings appear, in particular, thanks to vivid metaphors: for example, the same roof . For roof the main idea is protection, an ordinary roof protects the house, and the “modern roof” protects the businessman and his business. No less interesting expression filter bazaar, where seemingly incompatible old and modern language layers collided: bazaar and filter . New words arise due to powerful and productive word formation. Indeed, in the models themselves, according to which the words lawlessness, scumbag are formed (there is also a metaphor involved here - the transition from a frozen state to a frostbite, that is, not constrained by anything), collision and raspaltsovka, there is nothing bad. By the way, word arrival also existed in the Old Russian language, and the prefix model itself, with the help of which a new word arises, was perfectly preserved in the word raid . Of course, it was not the Old Russian word that survived through the centuries, but simply the language, according to the existing model, created this word anew with approximately the same meaning, but in relation to the new reality. If earlier hitting was carried out on horses, now, apparently, on geldings . By the way, the slang name of Mercedes appeared, as I said earlier, primarily because of the sound similarity, but not only. In addition, this is also a metaphor that emphasizes the connection between the car and the horse, their common “transport” function.

Perhaps the most interesting thing is that many of the “bandit” words turned out to be in demand in the language and after the bandit reality itself, if not disappeared, then at least obscured, became less noticeable. And this is often what is blamed on the language. At first, with the help of these words, he described the gangster reality, but now what?

The use of these words can partly be attributed to fashion, and not very pleasant fashion. Many people (non-bandits) have learned to speak as if joking and ironic, but they can’t unlearn it, especially since gangster jargon has successfully mutated, mixing with the “new Russian” of officials and businessmen, in which such words and expressions appear as commerce, kickbacks and cut the budget. In general, three nouns in the new “bribery-corrupt” meanings - skid, rollback and cut - have become a kind of symbols of our era. In general, the jargon corresponds to social progress - from the period of primitive accumulation of capital to the period of state capitalism and state corruption. In this case, advice to filter the market is the best fit, but is unlikely to be heeded.

The fate of a few words turned out to be the most curious, which from the category of gangsters turned into common ones.

I still remember those times when my very cultured acquaintances, grimacing, asked: “Scumbag, what is this? Ugh, how rude!” And now the sweetest intelligent lady, without thinking for a second, reacts to some of my harmless phrase: “Well, this is already a collision! How dare you!" These words, at first perceived as something alien to the literary language (such shots from a peppy action movie), expanded their meaning and became familiar in the speech of educated people.

Often they fill a certain gap in the literary language, that is, they express an important idea for which there was no separate word. Such words turned out to be, for example, to get and hitting . They have become very popular and are constantly found in oral communication, if only because you can’t say more precisely in one word. Among other things, they have expression and a special emotional power characteristic of many jargons. I was especially impressed by the “career rise” of another such word: in the statement of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the expression act of terrorist lawlessness . It is amazing how easily the word lawlessness overcame the camp borders (after all, initially this word described a special situation in the camp, when unwritten camp rules were violated) and entered the official language.

It is absolutely pointless to fight against such “enrichment” of the Russian language, especially since it is represented by isolated phenomena. It is rather useful. Most of the “gangster” words will go away as soon as the need for them disappears and the fashion subsides. It remains to wait ...

Make me elite!

I want to live in an elite apartment with stylish furniture, wear exclusive watches and trendy hair, read real advertisements and watch only cult films. That's when I'll be the right kid, fie on you ... an advanced manager. With this long statement, I'm trying to move on to the glamorous wave. Glamorous words, of course, are not such a compact area as bandit words. It is difficult to draw a clear line between, say, glamorous and youth jargon. They constantly flow into each other. Word party originally appeared in youth jargon, then it became glamorous and, in fact, common. And the word to light in the meaning of “have fun” seems to have first appeared in glossy and other magazines and only then entered into youth use. However, I can't vouch for the latter. Yes, and the arrival of glamorous words stretched for a long time and in fact is still ongoing.

The very word glamor came to us from the English language - glamor - and successfully competes with the word gloss, is slowly displacing it in this meaning from the language. Gloss was borrowed earlier from the German language, in which the corresponding word Glanz simply meant “shine”. Glossy magazines began to be called magazines with a shiny cover, and only then the meaning expanded, and it was about belonging to a certain mass culture promoted by “glossy magazines”, that is, magazines with the same shiny cover, but most importantly, magazines of a very specific content: about fashion, about a new lifestyle. Word glamorous seems to describe the same magazine culture, but reveals its essence to a greater extent, because in English it was originally associated with charms and magic (such is its first and original meaning). Perhaps that is why it is combined with a slightly larger range of words. For example, magazines can be called both glossy and glamorous, but glossy women did not come across to me. Glamorous are sometimes found, not only on the pages of magazines, but also in life.

In glamor texts, evaluative words play a very special role, primarily adjectives and adverbs. Moreover, if in speech in general, and linguists have noticed this fact a long time ago, there are much more words with a negative meaning in general and with a negative assessment in particular, then an exclusively positive assessment is used here. Of course, you cannot do without a positive attitude in ordinary speech, but in the advertising-glamorous-glossy language these words are simply the most important. It is clear that in this wonderful, magical world, everything is not just good, everything is very good, and the language looks a bit like a noisy merchant who constantly praises his goods.

What kind of language is this? Flip through glossy magazines, listen to the chatter of a secular party or the twitter of the sweetest corporate girls in a cafe, take a look at advertising texts or just at signs that are so hard for a linguist to break away from - and you will understand what I mean. This language annoys someone, makes someone laugh, and someone can’t do without it, well, they just can’t do it differently.

And here I will return to one of the cases told at the beginning of the book. Perhaps one of the most striking examples of fashionable assessment was the words elite and exclusive. Fifteen years ago, the word elite was combined with varieties of wheat or puppies, well, at worst, with troops and meant selection, selection of the best samples. Then it began to gradually replace the word elite (“intended for the elite”) from the language, and elite housing and elite clubs arose. And then uniform disgrace began. There were even elite underwear and elite armchairs! Well, there is no special linen and special chairs for any elite, whether political or intellectual! There are simply very expensive underwear, well, okay, I agree, high-quality. This semantic transition, however, is very clear and easy to explain. The elite in our country is increasingly understood in economic terms, based on the principle “If you are so smart, why are you so poor?”. In other words, elite increasingly means simply “rich people”. Thus, elite things are things intended for the rich, and therefore expensive. And yet, the difference between the old normative meaning (“obtained as a result of selection”) and the new usage is so great that it sometimes causes a smile.

On the Garden Ring, I noticed a sign - "Elite American Refrigerators". If you smile, then all is not lost. If not, just put the book aside, we are unlikely to understand each other. By the way, nearby, on the other side of the Ring, there are less funny, but still clumsy “Elite Wines”, but if you turn into lanes, you will inevitably stumble upon “Elite Doors” or “Elite Windows”.

Thus, now there is - and in fact it has already happened - a devaluation of the meaning of this word, only a positive assessment remains: expensive and, therefore, high-quality. However, the language does not stand still. I recently received the above mentioned offer in an e-mail, among other spam messages: “Elite seminars at reasonable prices”. This is where the cost has gone. The question is, what is left in the meaning of this word?

The word elite has a twin brother - the adjective exclusive. That is, in the beginning they differed quite a lot. Exclusive implied destination for a single subject, for example, an interview given to only one newspaper can be called exclusive, and exclusive rights are granted to only one company.

But more and more often strange combinations come across in the texts: exclusive video cassettes released in a huge circulation (but with very rare shots) or, for example, exclusive watch, produced in the amount of 11,111 pieces, signed by Michael Schumacher himself. In short, exclusive, semantically emptying, approaches the new meaning of elite: is rare, expensive and of high quality. But here the rarity disappears when I read the ad above the market stall: “Exclusive lamb”. It seemed that after the exclusive mutton, this word would no longer be able to surprise me. But no! One day I turn on the TV and watch two lovely ladies (the presenter of the program and her guest - the singer [10] ), who talk like this (I didn’t have time to write it down exactly). Presenter: “Well, you are an exclusive woman!” The singer giggles nervously. Host: "No, no, I'm in a good way." My - apparently perverted and obviously masculine - mind is still ready to understand what an exclusive woman is in a slightly obscene sense, but what an "exclusive woman in a good way" is, he refuses to understand. Is there anyone who can explain this?

Exclusive and Elite actually become synonymous and can simply reinforce each other, as, for example, in the advertisement for "Leather goods of exclusive and elite manufacturers." Fifteen years ago, only a bull or a stallion could be called an elite producer of , but look how progress is moving, and now we are talking about manufacturers of expensive products.

An evaluative word has a short life in advertising language. At first, it is searched for either in the native Russian language or in a foreign one, that is, it is borrowed, and a positive assessment in its meaning, as a rule, is accompanied by some other interesting and non-trivial meaning. Then the word is thrown into the texts, and, if you're lucky, it immediately becomes fashionable, begins to be used in unimaginable contexts, and its meaning is slowly erased, and only an enthusiastic assessment remains. Finally, everyone gets tired of it, they stop taking it seriously and throw it away like an old rag to admire some new word. Alas, sic transit gloria mundi, and this also applies to words.

At the beginning of perestroika, the adjectives cult and iconic acquired extraordinary power. The foreign abbreviation VIP (Very Important Person) is used less and less often, similar in meaning to elite : VIP services and so on. But even with her it came to the comic: no, no, yes, and there were VIPs, , that is, if we translate the English part, “very important persons” - persons.

I must say that is elite, and exclusive also passed the peak of fashion, and although they are still found everywhere, their fate is unenviable. At the very beginning, they seemed to be pulling a potential buyer along with them. Behind them both stood the ideology of being chosen. Elite said: "Buy a thing - you will enter the elite!", And exclusive: "Buy a thing - you will be its sole owner, no one else has it!" Then - the ideology of wealth, and they already shouted with one voice: “Buy an expensive thing! Dear means good!”

And now they are used more and more often in advertising of not very expensive and not very high-quality goods and have an ever weaker effect on potential buyers. It's like putting the phrase "very good" in an ad all the time. Who will fall for this?

Even large construction companies are dropping the words luxury housing, luxury apartments , etc. They have been replaced by business class housing, luxury or premium. However, advertising has already appeared on the streets of Moscow chicken premium, that is, in other words, “elite-exclusive chickens”. And this means another decrease in the rating, so I'm afraid that premium will not last long either.

Other words come into fashion, for example, pretentious or even gothic . Among evaluative adjectives, there are both more cunning and more unsinkable, which are directly related to the ideology of consumption. And they are also worth talking about.

Role of books

Despite the huge amount of entertainment that has appeared recently, the book still does not lose its positions and millions of people prefer reading.

I present to your attention a short essay in English about the role of books in our lives. It is suitable as a "topic" for schoolchildren and students. When writing, accessible English vocabulary was used.

Every time we read a book it teaches us and opens its heart for us. Every time we read a book, it teaches us and reveals its essence to us.
We learn something from each page of a good book. We learn something from every page of a good book.
Books make the world much larger for us. Books make the world much bigger for us.
They can take us into space or make us think about very serious problems. They can take us into space (space, place) or make us think about very serious problems.
All of us remember their first books from childhood. We all remember our first books from childhood.
They were a lot of pictures on every page and we wanted so much to go there. They were with a lot of illustrations on every page, and we so wanted to get there.
So books are the way of perception of the world. Thus, books are a way of perceiving the world.
It is a pity, but now it is no more popular to read books because of Internet and different electronic gadgets. It's a pity, but now it's not popular to read books because of the Internet and various electronic devices.
But no other source of information can give you such a strong feeling of belonging to the each step and thought of the heroes as a book. But no other source of information can give you such a strong sense of belonging to every step and thoughts of the characters in the books.
And you can feel like a hero because you know what is going on in his heart. And you can feel the hero because you know what's going on in his heart.
Sometimes we read for laughing, sometimes for tears and sometimes just to relax and forget about everything in the world. Sometimes we read for fun, sometimes for excitement, and sometimes to relax and forget about everything in the world.
It is a magic of books to make us feel different emotions by simple words that go deep into our soul and have a great impact on our characters. It is the magic of books that makes us experience various feelings that go deep into our soul and have a huge impact on our consciousness.
We are influenced by good examples, they form our moral values ​​and make us realize who we are. We are influenced by good examples, they form our moral values ​​and make us aware of who we are.
Books give food for our mind and warmth for our soul. Books give food to our minds and warmth to our souls.
We should read more books as they are the source of knowledge and only knowledge can make us strong, intellectual and well-educated. We should read more books, because they are the source of knowledge, and only knowledge can make us strong, intelligent and educated.

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