Skills and strategies for reading

Strategies for Reading Comprehension :: Read Naturally, Inc.

Comprehension: The Goal of Reading

Comprehension, or extracting meaning from what you read, is the ultimate goal of reading. Experienced readers take this for granted and may not appreciate the reading comprehension skills required. The process of comprehension is both interactive and strategic. Rather than passively reading text, readers must analyze it, internalize it and make it their own.

In order to read with comprehension, developing readers must be able to read with some proficiency and then receive explicit instruction in reading comprehension strategies (Tierney, 1982).

​ Strategies for reading comprehension in Read Naturally programs

​General Strategies for Reading Comprehension

The process of comprehending text begins before children can read, when someone reads a picture book to them. They listen to the words, see the pictures in the book, and may start to associate the words on the page with the words they are hearing and the ideas they represent.

In order to learn comprehension strategies, students need modeling, practice, and feedback. The key comprehension strategies are described below.

Using Prior Knowledge/Previewing

When students preview text, they tap into what they already know that will help them to understand the text they are about to read. This provides a framework for any new information they read.


When students make predictions about the text they are about to read, it sets up expectations based on their prior knowledge about similar topics. As they read, they may mentally revise their prediction as they gain more information.

Identifying the Main Idea and Summarization

Identifying the main idea and summarizing requires that students determine what is important and then put it in their own words. Implicit in this process is trying to understand the author’s purpose in writing the text.


Asking and answering questions about text is another strategy that helps students focus on the meaning of text. Teachers can help by modeling both the process of asking good questions and strategies for finding the answers in the text.

Making Inferences

In order to make inferences about something that is not explicitly stated in the text, students must learn to draw on prior knowledge and recognize clues in the text itself.


Studies have shown that students who visualize while reading have better recall than those who do not (Pressley, 1977). Readers can take advantage of illustrations that are embedded in the text or create their own mental images or drawings when reading text without illustrations.

Strategies for Reading Comprehension: Narrative Text

Narrative text tells a story, either a true story or a fictional story. There are a number of strategies that will help students understand narrative text.

Story Maps

Teachers can have students diagram the story grammar of the text to raise their awareness of the elements the author uses to construct the story. Story grammar includes:

  • Setting: When and where the story takes place (which can change over the course of the story).
  • Characters: The people or animals in the story, including the protagonist (main character), whose motivations and actions drive the story.
  • Plot: The story line, which typically includes one or more problems or conflicts that the protagonist must address and ultimately resolve.
  • Theme: The overriding lesson or main idea that the author wants readers to glean from the story. It could be explicitly stated as in Aesop’s Fables or inferred by the reader (more common).

​ Printable story map (blank)


Asking students to retell a story in their own words forces them to analyze the content to determine what is important. Teachers can encourage students to go beyond literally recounting the story to drawing their own conclusions about it.


Teachers can ask readers to make a prediction about a story based on the title and any other clues that are available, such as illustrations. Teachers can later ask students to find text that supports or contradicts their predictions.

Answering Comprehension Questions

Asking students different types of questions requires that they find the answers in different ways, for example, by finding literal answers in the text itself or by drawing on prior knowledge and then inferring answers based on clues in the text.

Strategies for Reading Comprehension: Expository Text

Expository text explains facts and concepts in order to inform, persuade, or explain.

The Structure of Expository Text

Expository text is typically structured with visual cues such as headings and subheadings that provide clear cues as to the structure of the information. The first sentence in a paragraph is also typically a topic sentence that clearly states what the paragraph is about.

Expository text also often uses one of five common text structures as an organizing principle:

  • Cause and effect
  • Problem and solution
  • Compare and contrast
  • Description
  • Time order (sequence of events, actions, or steps)

Teaching these structures can help students recognize relationships between ideas and the overall intent of the text.

Main Idea/Summarization

A summary briefly captures the main idea of the text and the key details that support the main idea. Students must understand the text in order to write a good summary that is more than a repetition of the text itself.


There are three steps in the K-W-L process (Ogle, 1986):

  1. What I Know: Before students read the text, ask them as a group to identify what they already know about the topic. Students write this list in the “K” column of their K-W-L forms.
  2. What I Want to Know: Ask students to write questions about what they want to learn from reading the text in the “W” column of their K-W-L forms. For example, students may wonder if some of the “facts” offered in the “K” column are true.
  3. What I Learned: As they read the text, students should look for answers to the questions listed in the “W” column and write their answers in the “L” column along with anything else they learn.

After all of the students have read the text, the teacher leads a discussion of the questions and answers.

 Printable K-W-L chart (blank)

Graphic Organizers

Graphic organizers provide visual representations of the concepts in expository text. Representing ideas and relationships graphically can help students understand and remember them. Examples of graphic organizers are:

Tree diagrams that represent categories and hierarchies

Tables that compare and contrast data

Time-driven diagrams that represent the order of events

Flowcharts that represent the steps of a process​

Teaching students how to develop and construct graphic organizers will require some modeling, guidance, and feedback. Teachers should demonstrate the process with examples first before students practice doing it on their own with teacher guidance and eventually work independently.

Strategies for Reading Comprehension in Read Naturally Programs

Several Read Naturally programs include strategies that support comprehension:

Read Naturally Intervention Program Strategies for Reading Comprehension
Prediction Step Retelling Step Quiz / Comprehension Questions Graphic Organizers

Read Naturally Live:
A mostly independent, cloud-based program with built-in audio support. Focuses on fluency and phonics with additional support for vocabulary.

  • Learn more about Read Naturally Live
  • Video: Working through a story
  • Main idea
  • Literal
  • Vocabulary
  • Inferential
  • Short answer
  • Retell / summary
  • Comparison questions (levels 5.6–8.0)

Read Naturally Encore:
A mostly independent, print-based program with audio support on CDs. Focuses on fluency and phonics with additional support for vocabulary.

  • Learn more about Read Naturally Encore
  • Read Naturally Encore sample stories
  • Main idea
  • Literal
  • Vocabulary
  • Inferential
  • Short answer
  • Retell / summary
  • Comparison questions (levels 5.6–8.0)

Read Naturally GATE:
Teacher-led instruction for small groups of early readers. Focuses on phonics and fluency instruction with additional support for phonemic awareness and vocabulary.

  • Learn more about Read Naturally GATE
  • Read Naturally GATE samples
  • Literal (containing many words with the featured phonics patterns)
  • Short answer

One Minute Reader Live:
A component of web-based Read Live for supplemental, independent reading that develops fluency with support for vocabulary and comprehension.

  • Learn more about the One Minute Reader Live
  • Main idea
  • Literal
  • Vocabulary
  • Inference

One Minute Reader Books/CDs:
Printed books with audio support on CDs that develop readers’ fluency with support for vocabulary and comprehension.

  • Learn more about the One Minute Reader Books/CDs
  • One Minute Reader sample book
  • Main idea
  • Literal
  • Vocabulary
  • Inference
  • Short answer (oral response)

Take Aim at Vocabulary: A print-based program with audio CDs that teaches carefully selected target words and strategies for independently learning unknown words. Students work mostly independently or in teacher-led small groups of up to six students.

  • Learn more about Take Aim at Vocabulary
  • Take Aim at Vocabulary samples
  • Main idea
  • Literal
  • Vocabulary
  • Inference
  • Vocabulary: Clarify target words
  • Vocabulary: Study word parts and review target words
  • Vocabulary: Apply the target words


Honig, B. , L. Diamond, and L. Gutlohn. (2013). Teaching reading sourcebook, 2nd ed. Novato, CA: Arena Press.

Ogle, D. M. (1986). K-W-L: A teaching model that develops active reading of expository text. The Reading Teacher 38(6), pp. 564–570.

Pressley, M. (1977). Imagery and children’s learning: Putting the picture in developmental perspective. Review of Educational Research 47, pp. 586–622.

Tierney, R. J. (1982). Essential considerations for developing basic reading comprehension skills. School Psychology Review 11(3), pp. 299–305.

Teach the Seven Strategies of Highly Effective Readers

To assume that one can simply have students memorize and routinely execute a set of strategies is to misconceive the nature of strategic processing or executive control. Such rote applications of these procedures represents, in essence, a true oxymoron-non-strategic strategic processing.

— Alexander and Murphy (1998, p. 33)

If the struggling readers in your content classroom routinely miss the point when “reading” content text, consider teaching them one or more of the seven cognitive strategies of highly effective readers. Cognitive strategies are the mental processes used by skilled readers to extract and construct meaning from text and to create knowledge structures in long-term memory. When these strategies are directly taught to and modeled for struggling readers, their comprehension and retention improve.

Struggling students often mistakenly believe they are reading when they are actually engaged in what researchers call mindless reading (Schooler, Reichle, & Halpern, 2004), zoning out while staring at the printed page. The opposite of mindless reading is the processing of text by highly effective readers using cognitive strategies. These strategies are described in a fascinating qualitative study that asked expert readers to think aloud regarding what was happening in their minds while they were reading. The lengthy scripts recording these spoken thoughts (i.e., think-alouds) are called verbal protocols (Pressley & Afflerbach, 1995). These protocols were categorized and analyzed by researchers to answer specific questions, such as, What is the influence of prior knowledge on expert readers’ strategies as they determine the main idea of a text? (Afflerbach, 1990b).

The protocols provide accurate “snapshots” and even “videos” of the ever-changing mental landscape that expert readers construct during reading. Researchers have concluded that reading is “constructively responsive-that is, good readers are always changing their processing in response to the text they are reading” (Pressley & Afflerbach, 1995, p. 2). Instructional Aid 1.1 defines the seven cognitive strategies of highly effective readers, and Instructional Aid 1.2 provides a lesson plan template for teaching a cognitive strategy.

Instructional Aid 1.1: Seven Strategies of Highly Effective Readers

Strategy Definition
Activating “Priming the cognitive pump” in order to recall relevent prior knowledge and experiences from long-term memory in order to extract and construct meaning from text
Inferring Bringing together what is spoken (written) in the text, what is unspoken (unwritten) in the text, and what is already known by the reader in order to extract and construct meaning from the text
Monitoring-Clarifying Thinking about how and what one is reading, both during and after the act of reading, for purposes of determining if one is comprehending the text combined with the ability to clarify and fix up any mix-ups
Questioning Engaging in learning dialogues with text (authors), peers, and teachers through self-questioning, question generation, and question answering
Searching-Selecting Searching a variety of sources in order to select appropriate information to answer questions, define words and terms, clarify misunderstandings, solve problems, or gather information
Summarizing Restating the meaning of text in one’s own words — different words from those used in the original text
Visualizing-Organizing Constructing a mental image or graphic organizer for the purpose of extracting and constructing meaning from the text
Download chart » (8K PDF)*



Instructional Aid 1.

2: A Lesson Template for Teaching Cognitive Strategies
Steps Teacher Script
1. Provide direct instruction regarding the cognitive strategy  
a. Define and explain the strategy  
b. Explain the purpose the strategy serves during reading  
c. Describe the critical attributes of the strategy  
d. Provide concrete examples/nonexamples of the strategy  
2. Model the strategy by thinking aloud  
3. Facilitate guided practice with students  
Download chart » (8K PDF)*





Instructional Aid 1.3: A Lesson Template for Teaching Summarizing

Lesson Template for Teaching Cognitive Strategies Lesson Plan for Teaching Summarizing
1. Provide direct instruction regarding the cognitive strategy  
a. Define and explain the strategy. Summarizing is restating in your own words the meaning of what you have read—using different words from those used in the original text—either in written form or a graphic representation (picture of graphic organizer).
b. Explain the purpose the strategy serves during reading Summarizing enables a reader to determine what is most imporant to remember once the reading is completed. Many things we read have only one or two bid ideas, and it’s important to identify them and restate them for purposed of retention.
c. Describe the critical attributes of the strategy. A summary has the following characteristics. It:
  –Is short
  –Is to the point, containing the big idea of the text
  –Omits trivial information and collapses lists into a word or phrase
  –Is not a retelling or a “photocopy” of the text
d. Provide concrete examples/nonexamples of the strategy. Examples of good summaries might inlude the one-sentence book summaries from The New York Times Bestsellers List, an obituary of a famous person, or a report of a basketball or football game that captures the highlights.

The mistakes that students commonly make when writing summaries can be more readily avoided by showing students excellent nonexamples (e.g., a paragraph that is too long, has far too many details, or is a complete retelling of the text rather than a statement of the main idea.

2. Model the strategy by thinking aloud. Thinking aloud is a metacognitive activity in which teachers reflect on their behaviors, thoughts, and attitudes regarding what they have read and then speak their thoughts aloud for students. Choose a section of relatively easy text from your discipline and think aloud as you read it, and then also think aloud about how you would go about summarizing it — then do it.
3. Facilitate guided practice with students. Using easy-to-read content text, read aloud and generate a summary together with the whole class.

Using easy-to-read content text, ask students to read with partners and create a summary together.

One students are writing good summaries as partners, assign text and expect students to read it and generate summaries independently.

Download chart » (9K PDF)*



McEwan, 2004. 7 Strategies of Highly Effective Readers: Using Cognitive Research to Boost K-8 Achievement. Wood, Woloshyn, & Willoughby, 1995. Cognitive Strategy Instruction for Middle and High Schools.

McEwan, E.K., 40 Ways to Support Struggling Readers in Content Classrooms. Grades 6-12, pp.1-6, copyright 2007 by Corwin Press. Reprinted by permission of Corwin Press, Inc.

Strategies for developing reading skills - NovaInfo 112

Novainfo 112 , p.41-42 , download PDF


Inevitably, reading skill is an interactive process in which students construct a meaningful representation of a text using appropriate reading strategies for themselves. This article defines the term "reading and reading comprehension", explains the types of reading, declares models of the process of reading, sets out theories of reading comprehension, discusses effective strategies for reading comprehension, and mentions the results of students' reading strategies and their reading comprehension.



Research paper

Reading comprehension requires the successful expansion and organization of a multitude of lower and higher level processes and skills. Accordingly, there are many sources of possible impairment of comprehension, and these sources differ depending on the skill level and age of the readers. There are several types of reading that should be known to improve students' reading comprehension. First there are two different types of reading. They are extensive reading and intensive reading. There are different definitions for extensive reading. Hedge (2003) describes this as skimming and scanning, while Hafiz and Tudor (1989) expressed the view that exposing students to a large amount of meaningful and engaging material would have a significant impact on students' second language proficiency.

Initially used texts tend to be relatively simple so that students can grasp the meaning of unknown words. This is very important because it means that longer texts can be used than would be the case in most classroom environments. Another feature is that the extensive should be an enjoyable experience, as students are free to choose texts on topics they find intriguing. Comprehension checks tend to be kept to a minimum because the process of reading is seen as more important than understanding specific details, and because such checks can cause anxiety and reduce the enjoyment of reading. Extensive reading should be an enjoyable experience, as students are free to choose texts on topics that interest them.

Hedge mentioned enhanced reading as follows: students can master the language, improve their reading skills, become more independent in their learning, learn cultural knowledge, and increase confidence and incentive to continue their learning. (Hedge, 2003). The definition for intensive reading is usually given as the emphasis is on details that support the main points chosen at the skimming level. When the level of comprehension is to be qualitative, reading for memorization or accuracy is done through the structure of the survey and the phrases for reading. This reading includes repeated reading and note-taking, very often followed by a summary. Preparing for the exam requires accurate interpretation of the text, requiring intensive reading skills. Intensive reading includes several types of reading tasks. Comparison - graphs, tables, diagrams with explanations to them. Defining - scientific texts from the genre point of view. Recognition is the relationship between concepts, the relationship between ideas. Since intensive reading is mainly for a scientific text, they are characterized by brevity with concepts related, sometimes dependent on each other. Understanding academic texts is easier if students are familiar with text development techniques, such as cause and effect relationships, examples, definitions, comparisons, and connectors associated with some of them. Science textbooks are heavily illustrated. These visual forms of communication replace verbal communication and must be carefully read and understood.

There are three types of reading comprehension theories. These are mental representations, content literacy and cognitive processes. Mental Representations - Van Oostendorp and Goldman (1998) expressed that when a reader reads a text, they can create a mental representation of the text that explains how the reader understands the text. Many studies have confirmed that many levels of representation are involved in the construction of meaning. When a reader reads a text, three different levels of mental representation are created. This is a surface component, a text base and a situation model. When words and phrases, and not the meaning of the words and phrases, are encoded in the mental representation, this is defined as the surface component of the mental representation. The text base indicates the meaning of the text and consists of those parts and relationships that have arisen from the text itself without increasing anything that is not clearly defined in the text. A text base can be made without remembering the exact words or phrases from the text. In a pure text base, the reader applies previous knowledge to create a more refined and coherent mental representation. A situational model is a structure that combines a text base and related features of the reader's knowledge. To create a text base, some previous knowledge is required, but this knowledge is more general, which is necessary for decoding texts in general, while previous knowledge in the formation of a situation model is more specific regarding the content of the text.

Setting reading goals before starting any unknown text forces students to be punctual while reading. Each student sets their own reading goals. This can help them take action to develop reading skills and students will be more attentive to how they improve. If the text is too complex or long, it is useful to divide them into parts. Long, complex reading can be more easily digestible if broken down into sections. Short segments will help students retain information as the class discusses the materials. It can also help students gain confidence in understanding a complex subject. Each student has their own style of reading, they need to be given the opportunity to lead the reading. Students process reading materials and curriculum in completely different ways. As the teacher completes reading assignments to help your class learn difficult material, you will learn what works best for each individual student. By incorporating more reading activities into curricula, students will find improvements in vocabulary, writing skills, problem solving, concentration, and cognitive development to help build a solid foundation for future learning.

This article emphasizes the idea that many strategies influence processes of understanding. All of these strategies work together to create a meaningful process easily and effectively. Based on the results of this study, it is concluded that reading materials and tasks should be very attractive to students so that they can easily understand the text, and they should be related to the level of students' proficiency. Teachers have a great responsibility to motivate their students to read these materials, they must be very sensitive to their students' understanding difficulties and must help their students change their outlook on reading and have a positive attitude towards their reading activities so they can do better. understand different texts.

See also


  1. McNamara, D.S., & Magliano, J. P. (2009). Towards a comprehensive model of understanding. In B. Rose (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (pp.297-384). New York, NY: Academic Press.
  2. Duke, N. (2003). Comprehension instruction for informational text. Presentation at the annual meeting of the Michigan Reading Association, Grand Rapids, MI.
  3. Hedge (2003) Reciprocal Teaching Strategies and Their Impacts on English Reading Comprehension. Theory and Practice in Language Studies
  4. Hafiz and Tudor (1989) Intensive Reading English Teaching Professional, 28. 40-48. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  5. Day and Bamford (2009). Teaching reading comprehension to EFL. The Reading Matrix, 143-154. Retrieved from
  6. Carrell (2012) A schema-theoretic view of basic processes in reading. Handbook of reading research (pp. 255–292). New York: Longman.


Tursunova, D.Sh. Strategies for developing reading skills / D.Sh. Tursunov. - Text: electronic // NovaInfo, 2020. - No. 112. - P. 41-42. — URL: (date of access: 10/17/2022).


Techniques for teaching the strategy of semantic reading and working with text

1. Introduction

educational practitioners before the need to develop new approaches to teaching reading.


- children have low reading speed, as a result of which they spend a lot of time doing homework,

- they often do not understand the meaning of what they read due to reading errors and incorrect intonation,

- they cannot extract the necessary information from the proposed text, highlight the main thing in what they read,

- they find it difficult to briefly retell the content,

- when performing independent work, tests of different levels, students make mistakes due to misunderstanding of the wording of the task,

- rarely refer to cognitive texts.

That is, a serious contradiction arises: on the one hand, the modern world brings down a huge amount of information on us, on the other hand, our children do not read much, do not have semantic reading skills, and do not know how to work with information.

It is not so important to read a lot, it is much more necessary to process what you have read in your mind in a quality manner. Having comprehended and structured the text in a certain way, it is much easier to convey its content and learn the main thing.

The current interdisciplinary curriculum, provided for by the new educational standards, is the program "Fundamentals of semantic reading and working with text." The program is aimed at forming and developing the foundations of reading competence necessary for students to implement their future plans, including continuing education and self-education, preparing for work and social activities. Today, reading, along with writing and computer skills, is one of the basic skills that allow you to work productively and communicate freely with different people. Reading is a universal skill: it is something taught and something through which one learns. As scientists have established, about 200 factors affect student performance. Factor #1 is reading skill, which has a far greater impact on academic performance than all of them combined. Research shows that in order to be competent in all subjects and later in life, a person needs to read 120-150 words per minute. This becomes a necessary condition for the success of working with information. Reading is the foundation of all educational outcomes.

2. Semantic reading in the context of the new Federal State Educational Standards

Federal standards include in the meta-subject results of OOP mastering as a mandatory component "mastering the skills of semantic reading of texts of various styles and genres in accordance with the goals and objectives."

Semantic reading is a type of reading aimed at understanding the semantic content of the text by the reader. For semantic understanding, it is not enough just to read the text, it is necessary to evaluate the information, respond to the content.

In the concept of universal educational activities (Asmolov A.G., Burmenskaya G.V., Volodarskaya I.A. et al.) semantic reading actions related to:

- understanding the purpose and choosing the type of reading depending on the tasks;

- definition of primary and secondary information;

- formulating the problem and the main idea of ​​the text.

For semantic understanding, it is not enough just to read the text, it is necessary to evaluate the information, respond to the content. The concept of "text" should be interpreted broadly. It can include not only words, but also visual images in the form of diagrams, figures, maps, tables, graphs.

Since reading is a meta-subject skill, its constituent parts will be in the structure of all universal educational activities:

- personal UUD includes reading motivation, learning motives, attitude towards oneself and school;

- into regulatory UUD - student's acceptance of a learning task, arbitrary regulation of activity;

- in cognitive UUD - logical and abstract thinking, working memory, creative imagination, concentration, vocabulary volume.

- in communicative UUD - the ability to organize and implement cooperation and cooperation with a teacher and peers, adequately convey information, display subject content.

The diagram shows groups of meta-subject results related to semantic reading.

3. Strategies for semantic reading

To work with the text at each stage, the reader chooses his own strategies. Learning strategies are a set of actions that a learner takes in order to facilitate learning, make it more effective, efficient, faster, more enjoyable, aim and bring learning activities closer to their own goals.0006

The term "reading strategies" was born at the dawn of psycholinguistics, and its appearance is associated with the work of Kenneth Goodman and Peter Kolers (70s). (slide 14) The most general definition of J. Bruner became fundamental for all subsequent works: “A strategy is a certain way of acquiring, storing and using information that serves to achieve certain goals in the sense that it should lead to certain results.

In case of success, the student remembers the ways of his actions, operations, resources used, transfers the strategy to other situations, makes it universal. The number of strategies and the frequency of their use are individual.

Strategy No. 1. Directed reading

Purpose: to form the ability to purposefully read the educational text. Ask questions and lead group discussions.

1. Update. Reception "Associative Bush": the teacher writes a keyword or title of the text, students express their associations one by one, the teacher writes down. The use of this technique allows you to update knowledge, motivate subsequent activities, activate the cognitive activity of students, set them up for work.

2. Pupils silently read a short text or part of a text, stopping at the indicated places.

3. The teacher asks a problematic question on what has been read.

4. The answers of several students are discussed in class.

5. The students make an assumption about the further development of the event.

Strategy #2. Reading in pairs - generalization in pairs

Purpose: to form the ability to highlight the main thing, summarize what was read in the form of a thesis, ask problematic questions.

1. The students silently read the text or part of the text chosen by the teacher.

2. The teacher puts the students in pairs and gives clear instructions. Each student alternately performs two roles: speaker - reads and summarizes the content in the form of one thesis; the respondent listens to the speaker and asks him two substantive questions. Next comes the role reversal.

3. The teacher invites all students to the discussion.

Strategy No. 3. Reading and asking

Purpose: to form the ability to work independently with printed information, formulate questions, work in pairs.

1. Students silently read the proposed text or part of the text chosen by the teacher.

2. The students work in pairs and discuss which keywords should be highlighted in the reading. (Which words occur most often in the text? How many times? Which words are in bold? Why?

If you were to read the text aloud, how would you make it clear that this sentence is the main one? It is about highlighting the phrase voice, which hides an unobtrusive but reliable memorization.)

3. One of the students formulates a question using key words, the other answers it.

4. Discuss key words, questions and answers in class. Correction.

Strategy No. 4. Diary of double entries

Goal: to form the ability to ask questions while reading, critically evaluate information, compare what is read with one's own experience.

1. The teacher instructs the students to divide the notebook into two parts.

2. In the process of reading, students should write down on the left side the moments that struck, surprised, reminded of some facts, caused any associations; on the right - write a concise commentary: why this particular moment surprised you, what associations it caused, what thoughts it prompted.

Strategy No. 5. Reading with notes

Purpose: to form the ability to read thoughtfully, evaluate information, formulate the author's thoughts in your own words.

The teacher gives the students the task to write information in the margins with icons according to the following algorithm:

  • V Familiar information
  • + New information
  • - I thought (thought) otherwise
  • ? I was interested (surprised), I want to know more

The essence of semantic reading strategies is that the strategy is related to choice, functions automatically at the unconscious level and is formed in the course of the development of cognitive activity. Teaching reading strategies includes the acquisition of skills:

- Distinguishing types of message content - facts, opinions, judgments, evaluations;

- recognition of the hierarchy of meanings within the text - the main idea, theme and its components;

- own understanding - the process of reflective perception of the cultural meaning of information.

Mastering strategies occurs mainly in groups or pairs, which allows students to develop not only speech, but also communicative competence.

4. Techniques for teaching the strategy of semantic reading and working with text

The strategy of semantic reading provides understanding of the text by mastering the techniques of mastering it at the stages before reading, during reading and after reading. Working with any text involves three stages: pre-text activity, text and post-text activity

Stage 1. Work with text before reading.

1. Anticipation (anticipation, anticipation of the upcoming reading). Determining the semantic, thematic, emotional orientation of the text, highlighting its heroes by the title of the work, the name of the author, key words, illustrations preceding the text based on the reader's experience.

2. Setting the objectives of the lesson, taking into account the general (educational, motivational, emotional, psychological) readiness of students for work.

Purpose of stage 1: development of the most important reading skill, anticipation, that is, the ability to guess, predict the content of the text by title, author's name, illustration.

Techniques of pre-text activity:

If earlier, according to the traditional method, only one task “Read the text” was given at the stage of pre-reading the text, and the main attention was paid to control of reading comprehension, now we know that the better organized the stage of pre-reading, the easier it is for the student to read the text and the higher the result achieved by him.

Pre-text orienting techniques are aimed at staging reading and, consequently, at choosing the type of reading, updating previous knowledge and experience, concepts and vocabulary of the text, as well as creating motivation for reading.

Most common techniques:

  • Brainstorming
  • Glossary
  • "Landmarks of anticipation"
  • Preliminary Questions
  • "Dissection questions".

Brainstorming, Headline Forecast.

The goal is to update previous knowledge and experience related to the topic of the text.

The question is asked: what associations do you have about the stated topic?

Associations are written on the board.

The teacher can add various information.

Reading text. Comparison of information with that learned from the text.


The purpose of is to update and repeat the vocabulary associated with the topic of the text.

The teacher says the title of the text, gives a list of words and suggests marking those that may be related to the text.

Having finished reading the text, they return to these words (this will be a post-text strategy) and look at the meaning and use of the words used in the text.

"Landmarks of anticipation"

The purpose of is to update previous knowledge and experience related to the topic of the text. Students are given judgments. They should mark the ones they agree with. After reading, they mark them again. If the answer has changed, then the students explain why this happened (post-text strategy)

“Dissections of the Question”

The goal of is a semantic guess about the possible content of the text based on the analysis of its title. It is proposed to read the title of the text and divide it into semantic groups. What do you think the text will be about?

"Preparatory questions"

The purpose of is to update existing knowledge on the topic of the text.

Detailed reception algorithm:

1. Scan the text quickly. (Review reading.)

2. Answer the question asked in the title of the text.

Stage 2. Working with text while reading.

Purpose of stage 2: understanding of the text and creation of its reader's interpretation (interpretation, evaluation).

1. Primary reading of the text. Independent reading in the classroom or reading-listening, or combined reading (at the choice of the teacher) in accordance with the characteristics of the text, age and individual abilities of students. Identification of primary perception (with the help of a conversation, fixing primary impressions, related arts - at the teacher's choice).

2. Rereading the text. Slow "thoughtful" repeated reading (of the entire text or its individual fragments). Text analysis. Statement of a clarifying question for each semantic part.

3. Conversation on the content of the text. Summary of what has been read. Identification of the hidden meaning of the work, if any. Statement of generalizing questions to the text, both by the teacher and by the children. Appeal (if necessary) to individual fragments of the text.

Methods of text activity include:

  • Read aloud
  • "Reading to yourself with questions"
  • Stop Reading
  • "Reading to yourself with a mark"

"Reading aloud"

The goal is to check the understanding of the text read aloud .

1. Reading text paragraph by paragraph. The task is to read with understanding, the task of the listeners is to ask the reader questions to check whether he understands the text being read.

2. Listeners ask questions about the content of the text, the reader answers. If his answer is incorrect or inaccurate, the listeners correct him.

“Reading to yourself with questions”

The goal is to teach you to read the text thoughtfully by asking yourself increasingly difficult questions .

1. Reading the first paragraph. Questions are being asked.

2. Reading the second paragraph to yourself. Work in pairs. One student asks questions, the other answers.

3. Reading the third paragraph. They change roles. They ask questions and answer.

Stop Reading

Goals - managing the process of understanding the text while reading it.

Reading the text with stops during which questions are asked. Some of them are aimed at testing understanding, others - at predicting the content of the following passage.

“Reading silently with notes” (“Insert”)

The goal is to monitor the understanding of the text being read and its critical analysis . This strategy is most often used to work with complex scientific texts. It is used to stimulate more careful reading. Reading becomes an exciting journey.

1. Individual reading.

While reading, the student makes notes in the text:

  • V – already knew;
  • + - new;
  • - thought otherwise;
  • ? - I do not understand, there are questions.

2. Reading, the second time, fill in the table, systematizing the material.

Already knew (V)

Learned something new (+)

Thought otherwise (–)

Questions (?)

Records - keywords, phrases. After completing the table, students will have a mini-outline. After the students fill in the table, we summarize the results of the work in the conversation mode. If the students have any questions, then I answer them, having previously found out if one of the students can answer the question that has arisen. This technique contributes to the development of the ability to classify, systematize incoming information, highlight the new.

“Creating a question plan”.

The student carries out a semantic grouping of the text, highlights the strong points, divides the text into semantic parts and titles each part with a key question

Stage 3. Working with text after reading .

Purpose: correction of the reader's interpretation in accordance with the author's intention

1. Conceptual (semantic) conversation on the text. Collective discussion of the read, discussion. Correlation of readers' interpretations (interpretations, evaluations) of the work with the author's position. Identification and formulation of the main idea of ​​the text or the totality of its main meanings.

2. Acquaintance with the writer. Story about a writer. Talk about the personality of the writer. Working with textbook materials, additional sources.

3. Work with the title, illustrations. Discussing the meaning of the title. Referring students to ready-made illustrations. Correlation of the artist's vision with the reader's idea.

4. Creative tasks based on any area of ​​students' reading activity (emotions, imagination, comprehension of content, artistic

Techniques for post-text activities.

  • "Relationship between question and answer"
  • "Time out"
  • "Checklist"
  • "Questions after the text"

"Relationship between question and answer"

The goal is to teach understanding of the text . One of the most effective post-text techniques. It differs from the rest in that it teaches the process of understanding the text, and does not control the result (understood - did not understand), shows the need to search for the location of the answer.

The answer to the question can be in the text or in the reader's word. If the answer is in the text, it can be in one sentence of the text or in several of its parts. To answer the question, you need to find the exact answer in one sentence of the text. If it is contained in several parts of the text, such an answer must be formulated by connecting them.

If the answer is in the reader's head, then in one case the reader constructs it by connecting what the author says between the lines or in indirect form and how the reader interprets the author's words. In another case, the answer is outside the text and the reader is looking for it in his knowledge.

"Time out"

Objectives - self-test and assessment of understanding of the text by discussing it in pairs and in a group.

Reception implementation algorithm:

1. Reading the first part of the text. Work in pairs.

2. Ask each other clarifying questions. They answer them. If there is no confidence in the correctness of the answer, questions are submitted for discussion by the whole group after the completion of the work with the text.


This strategy is quite flexible. It lays down the conditions for the qualitative performance of any task. The “checklist” is compiled by the teacher for students at the first stages of applying the strategy.

Checklist "Brief retelling":

1. The main idea of ​​the text is named. (Yes/No.)

2. The main thoughts of the text and the main details are named. (Yes/No.)

3. There is a logical and semantic structure of the text. (Yes/No.)

4. There are necessary means of communication that unite the main ideas of the text. (Yes/No.)

5. The content is presented in one's own words (language means) while maintaining the lexical units of the author's text. (Yes/No.)

"Questions after the text"

The classification of questions, known as the "Taxonomy of questions", involves a balance between groups of questions to:

- the factual information of the text, presented verbally;

- subtext information hidden between lines, in subtext;

- conceptual information, often outside the text.

These three groups of questions are now being supplemented with a fourth one - a group of evaluative, reflective questions related to the critical analysis of the text.

"Thin" and "thick" questions

After studying the topic, students are asked to formulate three "thin" and three "thick" questions related to the material covered. They then quiz each other using tables of "thick" and "thin" questions.

Thick questions

Subtle questions

Explain why….?
Why do you think....?
Guess what happens if...?
What's the difference...?
Why do you think....?

Who..? What…? When…?
Maybe...? Could...?
Was it...? Will be…?
Do you agree...?
Is it true...?

    Question Tree

    Crown - what? where? when? Barrel - why? How? Could you? Roots - how to relate the text to life? With current events? What is the author trying to show?

    "Bloom's Cube" (Benjamin Bloom is a famous American teacher, author of many pedagogical strategies = technician).

    The beginnings of the questions are written on the sides of the cube: “Why?”, “Explain”, “Name”, “Suggest”, “Think up”, “Share”. The teacher or student rolls the die.

    It is necessary to formulate a question to the educational material on the side on which the cube fell.

    The “Name” question is aimed at the level of reproduction, that is, at the simple reproduction of knowledge.

    The question "Why" - the student in this case must find cause-and-effect relationships, describe the processes that occur with a particular object or phenomenon.

    Explain question - the student uses concepts and principles in new situations.

    Question Tree

    Options for working with text.

    "Questions to the text of the textbook"

    The strategy allows you to form the ability to independently work with printed information, formulate questions, work in pairs.

    • Read the text.
    • What words occur most often in the text? How many times?
    • Which words are in bold? Why?
    • If you were to read the text aloud, how would you make it clear that this sentence is the main one?

    We are talking about highlighting a phrase with your voice. Here lies an unobtrusive but reliable memorization.


    I use clusters for structuring and systematizing material. A cluster is a way of graphic organization of educational material, the essence of which is that in the middle of the sheet the main word (idea, topic) is written or sketched, and ideas (words, pictures) associated with it are fixed on the sides of it.


    These are words that can be used to compose a story or definitions of a certain concept.

    "True and False Statements"

    has a universal technique that helps to update students' knowledge and enhance mental activity. This technique makes it possible to quickly include children in mental activity and it is logical to proceed to the study of the topic of the lesson. Reception forms the ability to assess the situation or facts, the ability to analyze information, the ability to reflect one's opinion. Children are invited to express their attitude to a number of statements according to the rule: true - "+", not true - "-".

    "Do you believe..."

    It is carried out in order to arouse interest in the study of the topic and create a positive motivation for independent study of the text on this topic.

    Conducted at the beginning of the lesson, after the announcement of the topic.


    Develops the ability of students to highlight key concepts in the reading, the main ideas, synthesize the knowledge gained and show creativity.

    Sinkwine structure:

    • Noun (subject).
    • Two adjectives (description)
    • Three verbs (action).
    • Four-word phrase (description).
    • Noun (paraphrasing of the topic).

    "Mental maps" (graphic technique for organizing text),

    Mind mapping is a mind visualization technique. The applications of mental maps are very diverse - for example, they can be used to fix, understand and remember the content of a book or text, generate and write down ideas, understand a new topic for yourself, prepare for making a decision.

    In the center of a landscape sheet, one word indicates the subject, which is enclosed in a closed outline. Branches are drawn from it, on which keywords are located. Sub-branches are added to branches until the topic is exhausted.

    Mind maps activate memory. Lists, solid text, trees, and diagrams are the same. Mind maps, on the other hand, use every possible means to activate perception through diversity: different line weights, different colors of branches, precisely chosen keywords that are personally meaningful to you, the use of images and symbols. The technique of mental maps helps not only to organize and organize information, but also to better perceive, understand, remember and associate it.

    5. Diagnosis of educational outcomes using semantic reading techniques

    The network project "Techniques of Semantic Reading" [1] describes the model of V.V. Pikan, in which all cognitive levels are illustrated by exemplary examples of key questions and tasks that make it possible to diagnose the quality of mastering knowledge and ways of students' activities. Each of the cognitive levels (knowledge, understanding, application, generalization and systematization, value attitude) is assigned the number of points received for completing the tasks of the mastered level. The table below shows examples of questions and tasks, assessment criteria.

    Cognitive levels and assessment criteria

    Sample key questions and tasks (beginning of wording)

    Knowledge - 1 point

    Name. .., Define..., Formulate... . Retell ... List .... Choose the correct answer…. Complete the word…. Show…, Find out...etc.

    Comprehension - 2 points

    As you understand... Explain the relationship. Why ... Connect in semantic pairs .... Show on the graph...

    Application - according to sample 3 b.
    in a modified situation - 4 b.
    in a new situation - 5 b.

    Make an offer…. Identify Traits character…. Apply the appropriate rule.... Compare…. Draw conclusions.... Present your point of view...

    Generalization and systematization
    6-8 b.
    6 b. – local;
    7 b. intrasubject;
    8 b. interdisciplinary,

    Make a summary…. Make a table.
    Classify…. Give arguments for and against....
    Make a report…

    Value attitude - 2-10 b.

    What does it matter…. What do you think…. Do you like….
    Describe the advantages and disadvantages…. What role does the...

    6. Implementation of semantic reading technology techniques

    1. Work with text before reading. Reception dissection question.

    It is proposed to read the title of the paragraph "Compound sentence", the title of the scientific style text, and divide it into semantic groups; answer the question: what do you think the text will be about?

    2. Working with text while reading.

    Primary reading . Review reading or introductory reading:

    • How many paragraphs of the text?
    • Pay attention to the words in thinned and bold type.
    • Write out keywords.

    1. Compound

    2. Communication

    • Coordinating conjunctions
    • Intonation

    3. Additional communications

    • general minor member
    • Explanatory words

    4. Punctuation marks

    • Comma
    • Semicolon
    • Dash
    • No comma

    Learning reading . Rereading text

    • Reading 1 paragraph.
    • We ask questions to the reader, he answers them.
    • Reading in pairs to yourself 2 paragraphs, one student asks a question - the other answers.
    • Reading 3, 4 paragraphs - students change roles.

    3. Work with the text after reading.

    Work in groups: 1 group, using keywords, makes up a story about a compound sentence; Group 2, based on the plan for syntactic analysis of a simple sentence, draws up a plan for characterizing a complex sentence.

    General job:

    • Give an example of a complex sentence, give a description according to the plan, draw up a diagram;
    • make an intellect map.

    Fig.1. Mind map "Compound sentence" of a 9th grade student Samara D.

    7. Conclusion

    Semantic reading forms cognitive interest, the ability to compare facts and draw conclusions, activates the imagination, develops speech, thinking, and also teaches how to work with information. The active implementation of semantic reading strategies, technologies by all teachers of various academic disciplines will make our graduates full members of the new information society.

    References and references
  1. Project "Techniques of semantic reading" Auth. Dozmorova E.V., Director of the Center for Innovations in Education of the Faculty of Education and Science of the TSPU, Ph.D. -
  2. Federal State Educational Standard for Primary General Education //

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