Using word in sentences

Use word in a sentence

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The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historical usage. They do not represent the opinions of

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English Sentences with Audio Using the Word "In"

English Sentences with Audio Using the Word "In"
Let me in.
He gave in.
Count me in.
He's not in.
I'll get in.
Mary came in.
Keep in touch!
Keep in touch.
May I come in?
I am in London.
Please come in.
I live in Japan.
My father is in.
I believe in him.
I believe in you.
Rome is in Italy.
We're in a hurry.
Bill was in Japan.
He came in person.
She's in the bath.
They are in class.
Are you in a hurry?
He arrived in time.
She invited him in.
We swam in the sea.
Believe in yourself.
He was born in Ohio.
I arrived in London.
She works in a bank.
Tom is in the house.
We swam in the lake.
What is in the desk?
Don't let the dog in.
I once lived in Rome.
I paid $200 in taxes.
Lincoln died in 1865.
Please keep in touch.
Wait in line, please.
He deals in furniture.
He had to stay in bed.
He may be sick in bed.
He works in a factory.
I live in the country.
Keep in touch with me.
She acted in the play.
She lives in New York.
Turn in your homework.
Why don't you come in?
Can we talk in private?
He is in love with her.
He was in good spirits.
He went in place of me.
He went off in a hurry.
I ate lunch in a hurry.
I saw a woman in black.
I was in the mountains.
I'm living in the city.
She is in need of help.
She majored in history.
She was dressed in red.
The cat is in the well.
They live in this town.
We live in the suburbs.
You should stay in bed.
I fell in love with her.
I saw tears in her eyes.
It is dark in that room.
It was dark in the room.
She is dressed in white.
She is in her hotel now.
She is in love with him.
She wouldn't let him in.
Tom is blind in one eye.
What do you do in Japan?
You are in a safe place.
Come in, the door's open.
Don't play in the street.
He fell in love with her.
He put his room in order.
He's in bed with the flu.
I am interested in music.
I gave in to her demands.
I have an ache in my arm.
I never saw him in jeans.
I put cream in my coffee.
I was caught in a shower.
It's in my jacket pocket.
My father is in his room.
My mother is sick in bed.
She was in a great hurry.
The train got in on time.
A gun might come in handy.
Can you pay me in advance?
He lives in a large house.
He lives in the next town.
He was in time for school.
He went to London in 1970.
I didn't hear you come in.
I got some sand in my eye.
I keep a diary in English.
I was disappointed in her.
I was disappointed in him.
I was in bed with the flu.
My father was in the navy.
She fell in love with him.
She visited him in Boston.
She was born in the 1950s.
She was injured in a fall.
She's in the hospital now.
There's a hair in my soup.
They are both in the room.
You're wrong in this case.
All's fair in love and war.
I have a friend in England.
I haven't seen you in ages.
I tried in vain to open it.
I was in London last month.
I will call you in an hour.
I wish I were in Paris now.
It's 4:30 in the afternoon.
It's easy to work in jeans.
Ken was in Japan last year.
My brother works in a bank.
Rome wasn't built in a day.
She lives in a large house.
She put the key in her bag.
She stared him in the face.
She's never fallen in love.
The castle is now in ruins.
The Diet is now in session.
There were ten eggs in all.
There's no one in the room.
Tom is in bed with a fever.
Write in the date yourself.
You can go there in a boat.
Are you happy in your house?
Don't talk in the classroom.
Has she ever fallen in love?
Hold the ball in both hands.
I am interested in swimming.
I'll be back in ten minutes.
My father is in his fifties.
She first met him in Boston.
She has flowers in her hand.
She is proficient in French.
She stabbed him in the back.
She stays in touch with him.
The train arrived in London.
There is a hole in his sock.
There's a hole in this sock.
They found Tom in the crowd.
Who is the person in charge?
Write your name in capitals.
All our efforts were in vain.
Both of them are in the room.
Do you have jeans in my size?
Have you ever sung in public?
He gave in to the temptation.
He lost his way in the woods.
He stuck the book in his bag.
He was in critical condition.
I can do it in half the time.
I have absolute trust in him.
I saw a town in the distance.
I was disappointed in my son.
I'd like to live in New York.
I'll be with you in a second.
I'll send you home in my car.
I've never seen him in jeans.
In my opinion, he is correct.
John is in the swimming club.
Mary is studying in her room.
She has a flower in her hand.
She was hurt in the accident.
The car was stuck in the mud.
There is a hole in your sock.
They speak Spanish in Mexico.
This book sold well in Japan.
Tom is still in the hospital.
We are in favor of your plan.
We traveled in South America.
We were sweating in the heat.
What do you have in your bag?
What grade is your sister in?
What line of work are you in?
Don't interfere in my affairs.
He always sings in the shower.
He came in through the window.
He has some money in the bank.
He runs in the park every day.
He'll be along in ten minutes.
I am the tallest in our class.
I have many coins in this box.
I put some cream in my coffee.
I sat in the front of the bus.
I think his life is in danger.
I went for a walk in the park.
I write in my diary every day.
I'll be back in a few minutes.
Is that what you have in mind?

5 simple rules for word order in English

Unlike Russian, words in English do not have endings that could help to understand the role of each member of the sentence. Compare:

Tom is chasing Jerry. Tom is chasing Jerry.
Jerry is chasing Tom. Jerry is chasing Tom.

We changed only two words, but completely changed the meaning of the sentence. In addition, a certain word order makes it clear to the interlocutor what type of sentence is being discussed: affirmative, negative, interrogative, imperative or exclamatory.

To figure it out, let's remember what are the members of the sentence.

Grammatical basis:

  • subject - the subject that performs the action or is described in the sentence, answers the questions "Who?" or "What?"
  • predicate - a verb expressing the action or state of the subject

Secondary members of the sentence:

  • addition - the object to which the action is directed. Allocate direct object, which answers the questions "Who?" or “What?”, and indirect, which answers the questions “To whom?” or "What?"
  • definition - expresses the characteristics of an object or subject, a test question - "Which?", "Whose?" or "Which?"
  • circumstance - a word or expression that shows how, where, when, how long or how often an action was performed

In grammar, it is customary to distinguish two types of word order: direct (Direct Order) , which is used in narrative (affirmative and negative) sentences, and indirect (Indirect Order) , which helps to ask a question, express an exclamation, or even give an order .

Direct order

The main feature of direct word order in statements and negations is that the predicate comes strictly after the subject. Let's analyze 5 basic rules for each of the members of the proposal:

1. Subject comes first

In affirmative sentences, the subject usually comes before the predicate and can be expressed by a noun (with or without an article), a pronoun, an infinitive, a gerund, or a multi-word phrase:

Subject Predicate Translation
The cat is purring. The cat is purring.
They say. They're talking.
Swimming is popular. Swimming is popular.
What they want to know is top secret. What they want to know is top secret.

2. Predicate in second place

The predicate can be expressed by one semantic verb or several (remember the auxiliary verb, after which comes the main). With verbs like to be (to be) or to become (become), the predicate may also include other parts of speech - an adjective, participle, or noun. The particle not in negative sentences is also part of the predicate.

Subject Predicate Translation
Tim ran. Tim ran.
The dog is hungry. The dog is hungry.
The roof was not painted. The roof has not been painted.

In passive constructions, as in the sentence "The roof was not painted", the subject is the object to which the action is directed, and the direct word order is preserved.

3. Addition - after the predicate

Addition, if it is in the sentence, as a rule, is expressed by another noun (proper name or common noun) and is used after the predicate.

If there are two objects in the sentence - both direct and indirect, then each fights for primacy according to the following rule:

  • first indirect object without preposition, then direct object

Subject Predicate Indirect addition Direct addition
Nancy gave me a present.
Nancy gave me a present. (Semantic emphasis on the word "gift", because this is what is important for the speaker.)

  • either put the direct object first and then the indirect object with the preposition to

Subject Predicate Direct addition Indirect addition
Ray will send a postcard to his parents.
Ray will send a postcard to his parents. (It is more important not what he sends, but to whom.)

4. We put the circumstance according to the situation

Depending on the context and type of circumstance, they can be located at the end, beginning and in the middle of the sentence.

  • End of offer

The circumstances of the mode of action, place and time most often take place at the end of the sentence after the predicate or after the object, if any.

Circumstances of indefinite frequency (for example, sometimes - sometimes, often - often) are also sometimes used at the end of a sentence to draw the interlocutor's attention to them.

Subject Predicate Supplement Circumstance Translation
Mary is walking slowly. Mary walks slowly
The children play football in the playground. Children play football on the playground.
Anthony decorated the house today. Anthony decorated the house today.
Lisa eats meat sometimes. Liza eats meat sometimes.

If it is necessary to put several circumstances in a row, they must go in this order:

Subject Predicate Course circumstance circumstance of place Circumstance of time
Sarah sang beautifully in the karaoke bar last Friday.
Sarah sang fine in karaoke bar last Friday.
Anthony decorated the house today. Anthony decorated the house today.
Lisa eats meat sometimes. Liza eats meat sometimes.

  • At the beginning of the offer

Connecting adverbs ( then - then, next - then), adverbs of opinion ( surprisingly - unexpectedly, unfortunately - unfortunately), adverbs of the degree of certainty ( maybe , perhaps - maybe) are used at the beginning of a sentence. Circumstances of time, place, indefinite frequency are also sometimes used at the beginning of a sentence to highlight them in speech.

Circumstance Subject Predicate Supplement Translation
Suddenly the window closed. The window closed unexpectedly.
Stupidly, Phill didn't take his wallet. Foolishly, Phil didn't take the keys.
Usually Monica cooks the turkey. Monika usually cooks the turkey.
Perhaps, the train is late. The train may be late.
March we bought a car. We bought a car in March.

  • In the middle of the grammatical basis

Some circumstances are used after the subject, after auxiliary verbs and after the forms of the verb to be (to be). If the auxiliary verb is expressed in two words, for example have been , then the circumstance is placed between them.

As a rule, we are talking about circumstances that indicate the completeness of the action ( almost - almost), the indefinite frequency of the action ( always - always), the degree of confidence of the speaker ( probably - probably). In addition, adverbs of mode of action can be used in the middle of a sentence, focusing ( even - even) and expressing an opinion ( fortunately - fortunately) adverbs.

Subject Auxiliary verb/verb to be Circumstance Semantic verb / nominal part of compound predicate Supplement Translation
Professor Umbridge was probably too strict with her students. Professor Umbridge was probably too strict with her students
Linda has never contacted me. Linda never contacted me
Randy had almost been killed. Randy was nearly killed.
He has fortunately escaped. He fortunately escaped
I have even brought some sandwiches. I even brought sandwiches.
Susan angrily shut the door. Susan slammed the door in a rage

In negative sentences, circumstances are usually placed after the particle not, but if they want to emphasize the negation, then before the auxiliary verb. Also, the adverb is always placed before the abbreviated form of the verb.

Michael does not often have headaches0006 - Michael rarely gets headaches.
I certainly do not support your decision. - I don't support your decision at all.
We probably won't come to the party. We may not be coming to the party.

There are adverbs, for example really (in fact), only (only), which can freely change their place in the sentence, creating different semantic stresses or changing the meaning. For example:

Leo doesn't really like dancing. - Leo doesn't really like to dance.
Leo really doesn't like dancing. - Leo doesn't really like to dance.

More about the types and place of adverbs in a sentence, we tell here.

5. We put the definition before or after the noun

The definition is used before or after the noun on which it depends.

  • Attributes expressed by adjectives, participles, possessive pronouns and ordinal numbers come before the noun.

Richard John
Definition Subject Predicate Definition Supplement Translation
is dating a very good-looking girl. Richard is dating a very beautiful girl.
My aunt will look after the dog. My aunt will look after the dog.
didn't love his second wife. John did not love his second wife.
The scientist was watching flying birds. A scientist was watching birds in flight.

If you need to describe an object with several adjectives, you should do it in this order:

Size Age Form Color Origin Material Exists
a little black silk dress
small black silk dress
old brown Italian leather boots
old brown Italian leather boots
a huge ancient round temple
huge ancient round temple

  • The definition is used after the noun if it is expressed by a participial phrase or other construction of several words, as well as in the case of some adjectives.

Definition Subject Predicate Supplement Definition
Your sister ordered a steak made of soya.
Yours sister ordered steak, made from soy.
The manager was searching for methods of motivation.
Manager looking for methods motivation.
They asked for the tickets available.
Oni asked about available tickets.

Relative clauses

Relative order is preserved in subordinate clauses, even if it is violated in the main clause.

Main offer Soyuz Subsidiary clause
Mum wants to know where you go.
Mom wants to know to you are going.
Tell me where you go.
Tell me to you are going.
Do you know where you go?
You know to are you going?

Thus, the basic word order scheme looks like this:

Subject + Predicate + Object + Circumstance

Watch a video where a native speaker explains the rules for constructing sentences using understandable examples (in Russian with English and Russian subtitles) :

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Indirect order

When the subject-predicate sequence is broken, they speak of indirect word order.


In colloquial speech, you can ask a question with a direct word order, changing only the intonation, as we do in Russian, but English grammar has its own rules for this. Each type of question has its own special word order, and in most cases the auxiliary verb (or part of it), verb to be or a modal verb is placed before the subject.

See examples of general, special and alternative questions:

Question word Auxiliary verb Subject Semantic verb / nominal part of the predicate Supplement
Does Marschall like olives?
Marshal loves olives?
Is Sheldon smart?
Sheldon smart?
When will Ted meet Tracy?
When Ted will meet Tracy?
Have you watched "How I Met Your Mother" or "The Big Band Theory"?
you watched How I Met Your Mother or The Big Bang Theory?
What have you been reading?
What is you read?
Can Barney play lasertag?
Can Barney play in laser tag?

Particle not in negative questions (“Is it?”) is used together with an auxiliary verb:

Don’t you know the rules? Don't you know the rules?

Note that the question word in special questions is placed at the beginning of the sentence and replaces an unknown object, definition or circumstance. At the same time, if a preposition is needed in a question for an addition, it is put at the end of the question:

What did they clean the windows with? - What did they clean the windows with?

In the question to the subject of the word what or who logically replace it:

Who has stolen the Christmas? - Who Stole Christmas?

The tag question is usually used when they want to get confirmation of what has been said. It consists of an affirmative or negative main clause and a short question at the end. In the interrogative part, the subject and predicate are also interchanged:

Dad didn’t forget to buy the presents, did he? - Dad didn't forget to buy gifts, right? (Or did Daddy buy gifts, right?)

Learn more about the different types of questions and their features in our other article.

Imperative statements

Orders or requests usually do not have a subject. Otherwise, the typical word order is preserved: the predicate, then the addition, the remaining members of the sentence are arranged depending on the situation. If the speaker wants to emphasize who he is addressing, he can do this before or after the verb:

Appeal Predicate Appeal Supplement
Toby, come to me.
Toby, come to me.
Relax, everybody.
Relax, all.

Pronoun you before the imperative makes the phrase more emotional:

You get away from me! - Get off me!

In negative imperative sentences, the reference must come after the particle not . This helps to distinguish a request or command from a simple denial:

Imperative Negative offer
Don't you dare! Don't you dare! You don't dare. - You don't dare.
Don't anybody panic! - Don't Panic! Nobody panics. Nobody is panicking.


To express delight, joy, sadness, resentment and other emotions, constructions with the words how (how), what (what, what), may (let) are often used in English and the negative questions we talked about earlier

  • exclamations with how

Usually this word is followed by a definition, subject, predicate, object and circumstance, but individual members of the sentence may be missing.

How Definition Subject Predicate
How beautiful!
Like beautiful!
How windy it is.
As windy!
How you have grown!
Like you has grown!

  • exclamations with what

what is usually followed by an adjective or noun (definition, subject or object) then normal word order is preserved.

What Definition Supplement Subject Predicate
What a surprise!
What surprise!
What a lovely evening!
What wonderful evening!
What a dazzling smile your cousin has!
What dazzling smile from your cousin.

  • Statements since may

Modal verb may in exclamations is sometimes placed at the beginning of a sentence before the subject to give the statement a certain style or emotion.

May they rot in hell! - May they rot in hell!

By the way, the famous phrase from Star Wars is also based on this technique:
May the Force be with you! - May the Force be with you!

  • Negative questions

Some native speakers may use negative questions in the form of exclamations, for example:
Isn't it lovely! - Isn't that wonderful!

These and other ways to express your emotions in English are described in detail here.

There is/there are

To say that something is somewhere or vice versa, use the phrases there is for singular objects and there are for plural objects. The word there , which usually means "there", is not translated here. Verb forms to be (is, are) act as a predicate followed by a subject

There is a croissant for you on the table. - There is a croissant on the table for you.
There are two designers in our team. — There are two designers in our team.


Sometimes the direct word order in statements and negations is deliberately violated in order to achieve some special stylistic effect. Remember Master Yoda from Star Wars:

Disturb me, you must not! Practicing I am. You shouldn't interfere with me. I practice.

In real life, as a rule, inversion is used in business or literary speech. Here are some more examples:

Ellen was very religious, as were many of her friends. - Ellen was very religious, as were many of her friends.
Under no circumstances can we publish these documents. - Under no circumstances should these documents be published.
Directly in front of them stood a great castle. - Directly in front of them was a magnificent castle.
"I'm here", whispered Jim. "I'm here," Jim whispered.

A vivid example from colloquial speech: to say “me too”, use set expressions with the words so (in affirmations) and neither (in negatives) :
- I don’t watch TV. I don't watch TV.
Neither do I. Neither do I.

In addition, in an informal conversation, inversion is often used with the words here and there meaning "here":
There goes your girlfriend! "Here comes your girlfriend!"

Detailed information about the cases when you can change places of words, you will find in this article.

Incomplete sentences

Along with inversion, some sentence members may simply be missing. Native speakers may skip certain words or phrases in a conversation if they are already clear from the context, or to separate a very long sentence. Here are some examples:

Seen Brian? (=Have you seen Brian?) Have you seen Brian?
David went to Florence, and Linda (went) to Berlin. - David went to Florence and Linda went to Berlin.
Though intelligent, he was very poorly educated. (=Though he was very intelligent…) - Although he was very intelligent, he was very poorly educated.

You can read about sentence fragments here.

Additionally, you can watch how a native speaker talks about the wrong word order in English (in Russian with Russian and English subtitles):


To summarize:

  1. In English grammar, direct and indirect word order is distinguished.
  2. Direct order is used in affirmations and negations. It implies that the subject comes first, then the predicate, then, if available, the object.
  3. Indirect order is when the subject comes after the predicate. It is used in questions, imperative statements, exclamations, constructions there is/there are , inverse and incomplete sentences.
  4. Different types of questions require a different word order, in most cases an auxiliary, modal verb or verb to be (to be) is placed before the subject, and after - semantic.
  5. Imperative statements usually do not require a subject.
  6. Inversion in declarative sentences is used to create a special stylistic effect in business speech, literature or cinema, usually with fixed expressions. But sometimes inversion can be found in colloquial speech.
  7. In incomplete sentences, individual members of the sentence are omitted, usually when the interlocutor already understands what it is about.

Introductory words in Russian - table, types and examples

What are introductory words

Let's start, as always, with a definition - let's figure out what words are called introductory words and why they are needed. Schoolchildren face them starting from the 5th grade, although they study in detail only in the 8th grade. This is not a difficult topic if you have a good visual memory - there are very few rules regarding introductory words in Russian, and you just have to remember some things.

Introductory words are sentence units that do not carry a separate semantic load, but enhance the emotional assessment, confidence or doubt of the speaker. They can also indicate the sequence of events, attract attention, etc.

There are several types of introductory words, but they all have the following features:

  • are distinguished in the text by commas, brackets or dashes;
  • do not have grammatical connections with other members of the sentence;
  • can be omitted from the text without loss of meaning.


Introductory words are not part of the sentence. They should be distinguished from exactly the same words that act as circumstances, definitions or additions. The difference is that the introductory construction cannot be questioned.

Consider this example:

  • Sasha did come, true , half an hour late.
  • Sasha confirmed that everything written is pure true .

So, we have the word "truth", which in the first sentence acts as an introductory one, since it cannot be questioned. In the second sentence, it is also a predicate. We can pose the question: “what is written is what?”.

  • Me, right , now I won't get home soon.
  • The whole class is correct solved this problem.

As you can see, in the second sentence you can put the question “how?” to “correctly”. Therefore, this word is not introductory.

The same rules apply to compound introductory words. They, too, can disguise themselves as different members of a sentence, and it is important to learn to recognize them.


  • He woke up every morning with joyful anticipation, in one word was happy. - With a single word you will not be able to convince anyone, actions are needed.
  • Sea air and plenty of sun, no doubt help to quickly recover from illness. - Misha dreamed of the sky since childhood, and therefore , without any doubt, chose a flight school.

Another way to distinguish introductory words is to remove them altogether and see if the sentence loses its meaning. Let's try it on one of our examples:

  • Sasha did come, however, he was half an hour late.
  • Sasha confirmed that everything written is true.

It is clear that in the first case the meaning remained the same, but in the second it was lost. This confirms that in the first sentence we are dealing with an introductory word.

Demo lesson in Russian

Take the test at the introductory lesson and find out what topics separate you from the "five" in Russian.

Signs of introductory words: table for grade 5

Grammatically, introductory words can be any part of speech and even a short sentence:

  • noun - without a doubt, true ;
  • adjective - at least, is to blame;
  • verb - I hope, I suppose ;
  • adverb - undoubtedly, definitely ;
  • gerund - frankly speaking ;
  • phrase - if you want to know, according to experts ;
  • is an impersonal sentence - seemed to me, as I see it .

Examples of the use of introductory words:

  • Pacific Ocean, no doubt , the largest on the planet.
  • Frankly speaking , I could not convince him that I was right, and I did not try.
  • This role, as I see it , Masha will play the best.
  • — Will you be expected by eight in the morning?
    - Of course !

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Digits of introductory words by value

As we have already said, introductory words can perform a variety of functions in oral and written speech. Some of them emphasize the position of the speaker - his confidence, surprise, regret, etc. Others point to the next action or event, the logic of the story or the source of information. The third ones are only needed to attract attention. Let's figure out what the introductory words of different types mean, and at the end we will summarize using a table with examples.

Different degrees of certainty, assumption and assumption

This is the most common category of introductory words that we refer to on a daily basis. The main function of this category is to emphasize confidence or uncertainty in any information, so it is very important.

Examples: certainly, certainly, of course, of course, suppose, probably, perhaps, maybe .

If such an introductory word is removed, the sentence will not lose its meaning, but its meaning will still become slightly different.


  • Maybe I'll call on you tonight.
  • I will visit you tonight.

In the first case, uncertainty remains, in the second case, the proposal sounds positive.

If we talk about introductory words that express confidence, this difference is less noticeable. With them, the statement becomes more categorical, but does not acquire other shades of meaning.

  • The task will be difficult, but you, of course , can do it!
  • Certainly is the shortest road to the city center.
  • This deal, no doubt , launched his successful career.

Do not confuse with members of the sentence:

I believed his words (how?) definitely and without the slightest doubt.

Next, we will consider how the introductory words are indicated, but for now we remind you: if you can put a question to the word, it is a member of the sentence and is not separated by commas.

Emotions, feelings and assessment of what is happening

Using this category of introductory words, the speaker expresses his attitude to events, gives an assessment. Such words can denote joy, delight, grief, horror, a sense of shame, apprehension, etc.

Examples: to everyone's joy, to horror, to my delight, unfortunately, unfortunately, the hour is uneven, that's it.

They are characteristic of direct speech, as they reflect the emotions and feelings of the speaker.

  • Sorry, , I will not be able to personally meet you at the station.
  • Time, surprisingly , flew by very quickly - I did not have time to get bored.

In fiction, these same introductory words can also be used to tell about the feelings of the hero or his attitude to events.

  • Katya, to her shame , did not know the meaning of this word and did not understand what it was about.
  • The artist went for an encore and, to the delight of the audience , performed all the hits.

Do not confuse with members of the sentence:

(What for?) The delight of the audience was mixed with a share of disappointment that the favorite hit was never heard.

Ordinariness, ordinariness of what is happening

Quite a small category of introductory words, in which the majority are colloquial expressions. They not only allow you to point out the ordinary nature of events, but also enliven the text, give it color.

Examples: happened, as usual, happened, as a rule, as usual, as usual, as always .

  • Grandfather Semyon opened the gate and, according to the old custom , leaned towards the shaggy Beetle.
  • After a walk in the park, we, as usual , went for a cup of tea in a cafe.

Do not confuse with members of the proposal:

Not accepting the church reform, the community continued to live (how?) old custom .

Introductory words indicating the source of the message

The main task of introductory words of this type is to indicate authorship, refer to the source of information or give the statement some kind of authority. They are typical for news reports, reviews, articles in the media and are part of the journalistic style, although they are used not only within its framework.

Examples: according to experts, according to scientists, according to the prime minister, according to a correspondent, in my opinion .

  • About 97% of all water on our planet, according to scientists , is contained in the oceans.
  • According to the Deputy Prime Minister , economic growth will continue next year.

In addition, such introductory words help convey direct speech without resorting to exact quotation.

  • Ivan Ivanovich said: "Our plant overfulfilled the plan by 5% last quarter. "
  • According to Ivan Ivanovich , the plant overfulfilled the plan in the last quarter by 5%.

Do not confuse with members of the sentence:

Do not draw far-reaching conclusions (for what?) according to experts , the situation may still change.

Connection of thoughts and sequence of presentation

This type of introductory words indicates the internal logic of the sentence, order or any other connection between events. It is especially often used in textbooks and scientific materials, since it makes it possible to streamline the text, build a causal chain.

Examples: therefore, firstly, secondly, respectively, therefore, on the one hand, first of all, in addition, finally .

  • These triangles have a common hypotenuse, hence , they are equal.
  • On the one hand, Dasha liked living in France, but on the other hand, she still missed home.

Do not confuse with members of the sentence:

The sheet of paper was painted only (where?) on one side and the other side remained clean.

Notes on the style of speech, way of expressing thought

Introductory words from this category are usually used to indicate the features of the presentation or to reformulate the thought. Like the previous view, sometimes they can precede a certain conclusion, but do not directly indicate the connection of events, but rather help express the same idea through other facts or in a different style.

Examples: in other words, to put it mildly, to put it more precisely, if I may say so, in short, in a word.

  • The children started to get bored and look at their phones, in other words , the film was not very interesting.
  • This, if I may say , is not jasper at all - the stone heats up too quickly in the hands.

Do not confuse with members of the sentence:

(What?) In other words, can be wounded no worse than with a dagger.

Introductory words that attract the attention of the interlocutor

Marker words with which you can draw the listener's attention to one or another part of the statement, emphasize the main idea. Very often they are at the beginning of a sentence, but they can also occur in the middle, but at the end they are extremely rare.

Examples: listen, imagine, emphasize, believe it, see, notice what is essential, what is even more important .

  • Note , no one left the classroom, although the teacher was already half an hour late.
  • At this meeting, we were able to sum up the results and, which is significant , outline a plan for the next year.

Do not confuse with members of the offer:

Marina always collected her briefcase in the evening, which (how?) significantly saved her time in the morning.

Of course, it is almost impossible to list all the introductory words that are, but we have compiled a short cheat sheet - a table with examples of sentences.

Value Introductory words Examples
Degree of certainty, assumptions, assumptions Undoubtedly, unequivocally, it may turn out, of course, of course, perhaps, for example, perhaps, etc.

Possibly , our department will join this project next month.

Katya, of course , the best student in the class.

Emotions, feelings and assessment of what is happening Fortunately, to my surprise, to my shame, unfortunately, the hour is uneven, to joy, unfortunately, God forbid, thank the gods, etc.

The weather has deteriorated and, the hour is uneven , it will also rain in our city.

Masha quickly found an error in the problem and, fortunately , managed to correct it.

Information source designation According to scientists, according to the press, they say, according to experts, in my opinion, in your opinion, etc.

This summer, say , there will be many berries in the forest.

According to scientists , green tea has a positive effect on the nervous system.

Indication of the sequence of events or thoughts Firstly, therefore, therefore, on the contrary, finally, in particular, in the first place, thus, etc.

Katya dreamed of a trip, and Dasha, opposite , would like to stay at home.

Winter will be harsh, therefore , you need to think about warming the house.

Calling attention to all or part of a proposal Do you understand, do you know, look, listen, confess, if you want to know, do me a favor, etc.

Listen to , if he did it, then he had a good reason.

We waited for him all evening, and he, you see , simply forgot about the meeting.

Indication of the commonness of an event or subject of conversation It happened, usually, it happened, as always, as a rule, as usual, etc.

I came to work, as usual , at eight in the morning.

It used to be , Ivan was late for the last bus and walked.

Remarks on the style and nature of speech, way of expressing thoughts To put it mildly, to put it bluntly, in a word, to put it bluntly, in other words, or rather, to say what is called, etc.

Your act, to put it mildly , looks tactless and offends those around you.

We live in a village near Tula, or rather , in the suburbs.

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Punctuation marks for introductory words

All introductory words in Russian are distinguished by punctuation marks, which is clearly seen in the examples from our table. In this they differ from the same words that act as members of a sentence and answer a certain question. In addition to the question, there is another way to understand whether it is necessary to put commas or other punctuation marks - try to move the word (phrase) to another part of the sentence.

  • As a rule Ivan eats oatmeal for breakfast.
  • Ivan, usually , eats oatmeal for breakfast.
  • Ivan eats oatmeal for breakfast, usually .

The meaning of the statement has not changed, the construction looks good in any part of the sentence. This means that these are introductory words and they are separated by commas.

Amazing, usually can be so confusing and difficult to understand.

In this case, the phrase "usually" has a strong syntactic relationship with other words in the sentence, it cannot be moved without losing its meaning. So it is not introductory. We can check this assumption by analyzing it by composition, and we will find out that the "rule" here is the subject.


If in a compound sentence with the union “and” both parts of it are preceded by one inserted word, a comma is not required between these parts.

  • Apparently , the lesson hasn't started yet and the children were still making noise outside the door.
  • Luckily the rain had stopped and I didn't get wet at all on the way home.
  • Yesterday I saw this document, hence , it was lying on the table and Nikolai could not pick it up.

How else is an introductory word distinguished in a sentence, apart from commas? Sometimes you can put a dash in front of it, but this refers more to the author's punctuation, which is needed to create a special rhythm of the text or convey intonation.

  • I realized that I forgot my passport and I was very scared - the hour is uneven , I will have to turn back.
  • Sergey was annoyed - you see , he expected to get a promotion this month.

Introductory words and insertive constructions

Insertive constructions and insertive sentences differ from introductory words in that they are an autonomous part of a sentence and contain a complete thought. They can act as incidental remarks, indications, author's explanations in relation to the main sentence, and sometimes even have a weak syntactic connection with it.

To make it clearer how the introductory words and plug-in constructions differ, we have compiled a small table.

Introductory words Plug-in designs
July they say will be warm and sunny. July, I think will be warm and sunny.
Alexey, of course already knew how to properly saddle a horse. Aleksey, we were confident in this , he already knew how to saddle a horse correctly.
The ring lay in a conspicuous place and, certainly , attracted attention. The ring lay in a conspicuous place, and - as the reader has already guessed - attracted attention.

It is easy to see that insert constructions, unlike introductory words, have their own subject and predicate. Very often they can be issued as a separate offer.

Short insertions may be separated by commas, while longer ones are often separated by parentheses or dashes. However, it depends not so much on the length of the structure, but on the author's intention. Putting a dash or bracket instead of a comma in most cases will not be a mistake.

  • Several guys - there were about a dozen - turned off the path to eat raspberries.
  • An old tram rumbled along the street ( such trams have long been discontinued ) and slowly disappeared around the corner.
  • Once — Kolya and Vitya remembered this day for a long time. — dad took the whole family fishing in the neighboring region.

Usually, when choosing between commas, brackets and dashes, they are guided by the following: if an interstitial construction has little or no syntactic links with the sentence, it is better to enclose it in brackets.

Sometimes an interstitial sentence ends with an exclamation mark or a question mark to enhance expression. In this case, it can be distinguished exclusively by brackets or a dash.

Last spring - it was a real miracle! - the old apple tree is suddenly covered with flowers again.


If the insertion ends with an exclamation point or a question mark, then the sentence must be continued with a lowercase letter.

Interestingly, introductory words can sometimes be distinguished in the same way. As a rule, this is found in fiction and is one of the ways to emphasize emotions, express the feelings of the author or character.

  • Katya carefully entered the dark room and — oh, horror! - noticed how the curtain swayed slightly by itself.
  • And soon ( wonderful thing! ) Petya fell in love with mathematics so much that he solved all the problems for the next quarter.

Here we are dealing with introductory words that could be separated by commas, but in order to enhance the emotional coloring of the text, they are presented in the form of interstitial sentences with an exclamation point. They can equally well be separated by brackets or dashes.

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